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Jin Xin (part one) 盡心, 上-Mencius 孟子(Selections)
来源:净心之旅 更新日期: 2017-1-23 浏览次数: 783 字号选择:  



7A. Jin Xin (part one) 盡心, 上

(13.1) 孟子曰、「盡其心者、知其性也、知其性、則知天矣。存其心、養其性、所以事天也。殀壽不貳、修身以俟之、所以立命也。」

[7A:1] Mencius said: “If you fully explore your mind, you will know your nature. If you know your nature, you know Heaven. To preserve your mind and nourish your nature is to serve Heaven. Not seeing duality between short life and long life, cultivate yourself by awaiting it. This is the way to set up your destiny.”

(13.2) 孟子曰、「莫非命也、順受其正。是故、知命者、不立乎岩牆之下。盡其道而死者、正命也。桎梏死者、非正命也。」

[7A:2] Mencius said: “There is nothing that does not have a destiny, so follow your own and accept it as it is. If you do this, when you understand what destiny is, you will not stand under the wall of a high cliff. To fully traverse one's course and then die—this is correct destiny. To die in handcuffs and chains is not correct destiny.”

孟子曰、「求則得之。舍則失之、是求有益於得也、求在我者也。求之有道、得之有命、是求無益於得也、求在外者也。」

[7A:3] Mencius said: “Search for it and you gain it. Ignore it and you lose it: this is the searching that has increase in its attainment, the seeking that adds to the self.”

“Search for it, keeping the Way, attain it, keeping with destiny. In this searching, there is no increase upon attainment. This is the searching through which you get rid of things.”

(13.4) 孟子曰、「萬物皆備於我矣。反身而誠、樂莫大焉。彊恕而行、求仁莫近焉。」

[7A:4] Mencius said: “All things are prepared within me. If I reflect on myself and find that I am sincere, shouldn't I be overjoyed? If I strive to conduct myself on the principle of reciprocity, will the humaneness I seek not be close at hand?”

(13.5) 孟子曰、「行之而不著焉、習矣而不察焉、終身由之而不知其道者、衆也。」

[7A:5] Mencius said: “Acting without being clear, practicing without close observation: doing this to the end of their lives without ever understanding their own course. This is the way most people are.”

(13.6) 孟子曰、「人不可以無恥。 無恥之恥、無恥矣。」

[7A:6] Mencius said: “A person cannot do without shame. If you are ashamed of your shamelessness, you will not need to be ashamed. ”

(13.7) 孟子曰、「恥之於人大矣。爲機變之巧者、無所用恥焉。不恥不若人、何若人有。」

[7A:7] Mencius said: “Shame is something important for people. Those who operate by clever opportunism have no use for shame. Not having shame, you will not be like others. What will you have in common with them? ”

(13.8) 古之賢王、好善而忘勢、古之賢士、何獨不然。樂其道而忘人之勢。故王公不致敬盡禮、則不得亟見之。見且猶不得亟、而況得而臣之乎。

[7A:8] Mencius said: “The worthy kings of antiquity were impressed by goodness and not by power. How could the worthy elites be different? They delighted in their path and were oblivious to power in others. Therefore, if a king or duke did not treat them with full respect and thorough propriety, he would not have much chance of seeing them. Not having much chance to see them, how could he gain their services?”

(13.9) 孟子謂宋句踐曰、「子好游乎。吾語子游。人知之亦囂囂、人不知亦囂囂。」曰、「何如斯可以囂囂矣。」曰、「尊德樂義、則可以囂囂矣。故士窮不失義、達不離道。窮不失義、故士得己焉。達不離道、故民不失望焉。古之人得志、澤加於民。不得志、脩身見於世。窮則獨善其身、達則兼善天下。」

[7A:9] Mencius, speaking to Song Gou Jian, said, “You like traveling to different courts, don't you? Let me speak with you about this kind of traveling. If you are acknowledged, just be content, and if you are not acknowledged, just be content.”

Jian asked, “How do you go about ‘just being content.’?”

Mencius said, “If you value virtue and enjoy fairness, you can be content. Hence the gentleman in difficulty does not lose his sense of fairness, and when successful, does not lose the Path. Since he does not lose his sense of fairness when in difficulty, the gentleman is able to keep a grasp on himself. Since he does not lose the Path when he becomes successful, the people are not disappointed in him.”

“When the ancients achieved their aims, they shared it with the people. Not attaining their aims, their self-discipline was an example to succeeding generations. In difficulty they could only cultivate their own goodness. Successful, they could share their goodness with the whole world.”

(13.10) 孟子曰、「待文王而後興者、凡民也。若夫豪杰之士、雖無文王猶興。」

[7A:10] Mencius said: “Almost all people wait for someone like King Wen to come and uplift them. But the truly outstanding gentleman will uplift himself, even if a King Wen doesn't appear.”

(13.11) 孟子曰、「附之以韓、魏之家、如其自視欿然、則過人遠矣。」

[7A:11] Mencius said: “If, after receiving the wealth of the families of Han and Wei, you still see something missing inside of yourself, then you far surpass others.”

(13.12) 孟子曰、「以佚道使民、雖勞不怨。 以生道殺民、雖死不怨殺者。」

[7A:12] Mencius said: “If you employ people with a sincere motive to make their life more comfortable, then even if they have to work hard, they won't blame you. If you execute people with the true motive of saving lives, then even if someone is killed, no one will blame the executioner.”

(13.13) 孟子曰、「霸者之民、驩虞如也。王者之民、皞皞如也。殺之而不怨、利之而不庸。民日遷善而不知爲之者。夫君子所過者化、所存者神。上下與天地同流、豈曰小補之哉。」

[7A:13] Mencius said: “When there is a strong ruler, at least the people can be relaxed. If there is a true king, then they can be completely content. He can conduct executions without blame, and make profit without their feeling abused. The people return to the good every day, without knowing who is making them do so.”

“So wherever the Noble Man passes through, people are transformed; the place where he stays is spiritualized, and Heaven and Earth flow together harmoniously. How could you say ‘he is of little help’?”

(13.14) 孟子曰、「仁言不如仁聲之入人深也。善政不如善教之得民也。善政民畏之、善教民愛之。善政得民財、善教得民心。」

[7A:14] Mencius said: “Kind words do not enter as deeply into a person as does a reputation for kindness. Good government is not as effective as good teaching in terms of gaining the support of the people. If you have a good government, the people will be in awe of you. If you teach them well, they will love you. Good government gains people's wealth. Good teaching gains their hearts.”

(13.15) 孟子曰、「人之所不學而能者、其良能也。所不慮而知者、其良知也。孩提之童、無不知愛其親也。及其長也、無不知敬其兄也。親親、仁也。敬長、義也。無他、達之天下也。」

[7A:15] Mencius said: “When people who have not studied have abilities, these are inherent abilities. When people who have not deliberated have knowledge, this is inherent knowledge. An infant carried in the arms has no lack of knowledge of how to love its parents, and when it gets older, it knows automatically how to respect its older brothers. Loving one's parents is humaneness, respecting one's older brothers is fairness. This is because these principles penetrate all people.”

(13.16) 孟子曰、舜之居深山之中、與木石居、與鹿豕游、其所以異於深山之野人者幾希。及其聞一善言、見一善行、若決江河、沛然莫之能御也。

[7A:16] Mencius said: “When Shun lived deep in the mountains, and he lived among the trees and rocks, and romped with the deer and boar, he differed little from other people of the wilds. But once he heard one impressive talk, and saw one act of kindness, it was like trying to hold back a vast river — nothing could restrain him.”

(13.17) 孟子曰、「無爲其所不爲、無欲其所不欲、如此而已矣。」

[7A:17] Mencius said: “Don't do what shouldn't be done and don't desire what shouldn't be desired. That's all there is to it.”

(13.18) 孟子曰、「人之有德慧術知者、恆存乎疢疾。獨孤臣孽子、其操心也危、其慮患也深、故達。」

[7A:18] Mencius said: “When people have penetrating wisdom and practical knowledge it is usually because they have spent a long time in difficulty. The orphaned servant and the concubine's son handle situations with caution and think deeply when in distress. Therefore, they handle things well.”

(13.19) 孟子曰、「有事君人者、事是君則爲容悅者也。有安社稷臣者、以安社稷爲悅者也。有天民者、達可行於天下而後行之者也。有大人者、正己而物正者也。」

[7A:19] Mencius said, “There are those who serve the prince, and do so to receive his favor. There are those who serve the land, and do so because it makes them happy. There are Heavenly people, who, once their excellence can be actualized in the world, actualize it. There are great men who rectify themselves—and others are rectified.”

(13.20) 孟子曰、「君子有三樂、而王天下不與存焉。父母倶存、兄弟無故。一樂也。仰不愧於天、俯不怍於人。二樂也。得天下英才而教育之。三樂也。君子有三樂、而王天下不與存焉。」

[7A:20] Mencius said, “.”

(13.21) 孟子曰、廣土衆民、君子欲之、所樂不存焉。中天下而立、定四海之民、君子樂之、所性不存焉。君子所性、雖大行不加焉、雖窮居不損焉、分定故也。君子所性、仁義禮智根於心。其生色也、睟然見於面、盎於背、施於四體、四體不言而喩。

[7A:21] Mencius said, “The Noble Man may enjoy the possession of a large territory with many people, but this is not what he takes delight in. He may delight in being established in the realm and stabilizing the people within the four seas, but this has nothing to do with his basic character. His basic character is not something that can be enhanced by great success, or be hindered by poverty. These are one's lot.”

“The essentials of the Noble Man's character are humaneness, fairness, Propriety and Wisdom, which are rooted in his mind. When they show themselves in his external appearance, their luster can be seen in his face, their fullness can be seen in his back, and go out into his four limbs. The four limbs reveal this without speaking.”

(13.22) 孟子曰、伯夷辟紂、居北海之濱。聞文王作興、曰、盍歸乎來。吾聞西伯善養老者。大公辟紂、居東海之濱。聞文王作興、曰、盍歸乎來。吾聞西伯善養老者。天下有善養老、則仁人以爲己歸矣。五畝之宅、樹牆下以桑、匹婦蠶之。則老者足以衣帛矣。五母雞、二母彘、無失其時、老者足以無失肉矣。百畝之田、匹夫耕之。八口之家、可以無飢矣。所謂西伯善養老者、制其田里、教之樹畜。導其妻子、使養其老。五十非帛不煖、七十非肉不飽。不煖不飽、謂之凍餒。文王之民、無凍餒之老者、此之謂也。

[7A:22] Mencius said: Boyi escaped from Zhou and dwelled in a harbor on the Northern Sea. When he heard of the rise of King Wen he said: “Shall I return? I have heard that Xibo (King Wen) is good at taking care of the elderly.” Taigong escaped from Zhou and dwelled in a harbor of the Eastern Sea. When he heard of the rise of King Wen he said: “Shall I return? I have heard that Xibo (King Wen) is good at taking care of the elderly.” When the people take good care of the aged, then good-hearted people return of their own accord. If you plant mulberry trees at the base of the walls on a homestead of one acre and assign one woman to the task of taking care of silkworms, then the elderly will be able to wear silk garments. If you don't miss the timing for the mating of five hens and two sows, the elderly will never have to miss out on eating meat. If a ten-acre plot is cultivated by one man, a family of eight will never go hungry. So when it is said that Xibo is good at taking care of the elderly, this means that he systematically manages the farms and villages, teaching the people the methods of planting and husbandry. He leads the wives and sons to take care of the elderly. If those aged fifty lack silk they will not be warm; if those aged seventy lack meat they will not be able to eat to their satisfaction, which means that they will be cold and hungry. Among the subjects of King Wen there being no elderly who are cold and hungry has these kinds of implications.

(13.23)孟子曰、易其田疇薄其稅斂、民可使富也。食之以時、用之以禮、財不可勝用也。民非水火不生活、昏暮叩人之門戶、求水火、無弗與者、至足矣。聖人治天下、使有菽粟如水火。菽粟如水火、而民焉有不仁者乎。

[7A:23] Mencius said: If you properly manage the farmlands and keep the taxes light, the people will live well. If people eat according to the season and use commodities according to propriety, provisions will not be used up. People can't live without water and fire, so if someone comes knocking on the door in the evening seeking water and fire, there is no one who will not give these things, as they are readily available. When the sage governs the world, he makes it so that beans and millet 9 are as readily available as water and fire. When beans and millet are as readily available as water and fire, how can the people not be kind to each other.

(13.24) 孟子曰、孔子登東山而小魯。登太山而小天下。故觀於海者難爲水、游於聖人之門者難爲言。觀水有術、必觀其瀾。日月有明、容光必照焉。流水之爲物也、不盈科不行。君子之志於道也、不成章不達。

[7A:24] Mencius said: When Confucius climbed Mt. Dong, 10 Lu looked small. When he climbed Mt. Tai, the whole world looked small. Hence, those who have seen the ocean have difficulty being satisfied with lesser waters; and those who have had the opportunity to have intercourse with a sage have difficulty being satisfied with lesser chit-chat. There is an art to observing water — you have to pay attention to the ripples. When the sun and moon are shining, their light will definitely penetrate the cracks. It is the character of water to be unable to keep flowing until it fills up the holes along the way. When the noble person sets his mind on the Way, he won't be successful unless he handles minor tasks 11 thoroughly.

(13.25) 孟子曰、雞鳴而起、孳孳爲善者、舜之徒也。雞鳴而起、孳孳爲利者、蹠之徒也。欲知舜而蹠之分、無他利與善之間也。

[7A:25] Mencius said: “Waking up with the call of the rooster and unstintingly applying oneself to the good — this is the way of the followers of Shun. Waking up with the call of the rooster and unstintingly applying oneself to profit — this is the way of the followers of Zhi 12 Do you want to know the difference between Shun and Zhi? It is nothing other than the difference between profit and goodness.”

(13.26) 孟子曰、楊子取拔一毛而利天下、不爲也。墨子兼愛、摩頂放踵利天下、爲之。子莫執中。執中爲近之、執中無權、猶執一也。所惡執一者、爲其賊道也、擧一而廢百也。

[7A:26] Mencius said, “Yang Zi 13 believed in ‘every man for himself.’ If he could have helped the whole world by plucking out a single hair, he would not have done it. Mo Zi 14 believed in ‘universal love.’ If he had to rub his whole body smooth in order to benefit the world, he would have done it. Zi Mo believes in holding to the center. Now ‘holding to the center’ comes close, but still, if you hold to the center, you have no adaptability, since you are just holding to one thing. What is bad about holding to one thing is that it robs from the Way. You hold to one, and let go of a hundred.”

(13.27) 孟子曰、「飢者甘食、渴者甘飮。是未得飮食之正也、飢渴害之也。豈惟口腹有飢渴之害。人心亦皆有害。人能無以飢渴之害爲心害、則不及人不爲憂矣。」

[7A:27] Mencius said, “For the hungry any food is delicious and for the thirsty any drink is tasty. But the hungry and thirsty are not getting the true taste of the food and the drink, since their deprivation has degraded their sensitivity. How could only one's mouth and belly suffer from the afflictions of hunger and thirst? Peoples' minds are also afflicted.”

“When you are able to keep the afflictions of hunger and thirst from affecting your mental state, you need never be concerned about being the equal of others.”

(13.28) 孟子曰、柳下惠不以三公易其介。

[7A:28] Mencius said, “Liuxia Hui would not change his basic purpose, even to become one of the three high ministers. 15 

(13.29) 孟子曰、「有爲者辟若掘井、掘井九軔而不及泉、猶爲棄井也。」

[7A:29] Mencius said, “Working at a project is like digging a well. If you dig sixty feet and stop without hitting water, it is just like abandoning the whole well.”

[Comment] This passage, like many others in this text, reflects Mencius' belief in the importance of making effort, and following through to the end. A similar point is made in the Daode jing, where Laozi points out that “people usually blow it just before finishing.”

(13.30)孟子曰、堯、舜、性之也。湯、武、身之也。五霸、假之也。久假而不歸、惡知其非有也。

[7A:30] Mencius said: “Yao and Shun [were kind and just] by nature. Tang and Wu acquired these qualities. The five hegemons 16 borrowed them. Since they borrowed them for a long time and did not return them, how could one know that they didn't own them?”

(13.31) 公孫丑曰、伊尹曰、予不狎于不順。放太甲於桐、民大悅。太甲賢、又反之、民大悅。賢者之爲人臣也、其君不賢、則固可放與。孟子曰、有伊尹之志則可。無伊尹之志則篡也。

[7A:31] Gong Sun Chou said, Yi Yin said, “‘I can't get along with him’ and thus exiled Tai Jia to Tong, which made the people very happy. When Tai Jia became good, he brought him back, and the people were again very happy. Does this mean that when worthies serve their people poorly as ministers, it is definitely the case that chasing them out is OK? May they indeed kick out their sovereigns in this way when they are not virtuous?” Mencius said: “If one does it with the same intentions as Yi Yi, it is acceptable. Without the intentions of Yi Yi, it is usurpation.”

(13.32) 公孫丑。詩曰、餐兮。君子之不耕而食、何也。孟子曰、君子居是國也、其君用之、則安富尊榮。其子弟從之、則孝弟忠信。不素餐兮、孰大於是。

[7A:32] Gong Sun Chou [said:] “The Odes say: ‘When it comes to eating, the noble man eats, even though he doesn't till the fields.’ What does this mean?” Mencius said: “When there is a noble man in the country, if the ruler properly makes use of him, there will be stability and wealth; he will be respected, and the country will flourish. If the youth of the country follow him, then filial children will have loyalty and be trustworthy. In terms of not getting a free meal, what could be greater than this?”

(13.33) 王子墊問曰、「士何事。」孟子曰、「尚志。」曰、「何謂尚志。」曰、「仁義而已矣。殺一無罪、非仁也。非其有而取之、非義也。居惡在。仁是也。路惡在。義是也。居仁由義、大人之事備矣。」

[7A:33] The king's son, Tien, asked Mencius, “What does a gentleman do?” Mencius said, “He elevates his motives.”

“What does that mean?”

Mencius said, “To live by humaneness and fairness and nothing else. If you kill a single innocent man, you are not Humane. If something is not yours and you take it, you are not Just. Wherever you dwell, make it Humane; whatever course you travel, make it Just. Abiding in humaneness and acting through fairness—this is how the great man completes his work.”

(13.34) 孟子曰、仲子不義與之齊國而弗受、人皆信之。是舍簞食豆羹之義也。人莫大焉亡親戚君臣上下。以其小者信其大者、奚可哉。

[7A:34] Mencius said: “If Chen Zhong were unjustly offered the kingdom of Qi and refused it, the people would all trust him. But this demonstrates a sense of justice comparable to that of refusing a simple meal of rice or bean broth. There is nothing greater crime than that of a person abandoning his relatives, 17 or his ruler above, or subjects below. Why should we trust the greatness of a person based on trivial acts of goodness? ”

(13.35) 桃應問曰、舜爲天子、皐陶爲士。瞽瞍殺人、則如之何。孟子曰、執之而已矣。然則舜不禁與。曰、夫舜惡得而禁之。夫有所受之也。然則舜如之何。曰、舜視棄天下、猶棄敝蹝也。竊負而逃、遵海濱而處終身訢然樂而忘天下。

[7A:35] Tao Ying 18 asked: “When Shun was emperor and Gao Yao 19 was his Minister of fairness, if the old Blind Man 20 had killed someone, what would Gao Yao have done?”

Mencius said: “He would have simply arrested him.”

Tao Ying said: “In this case, would Shun not have stopped it?”

Mencius said: “How could Shun have stopped it? Gao Yao had received the right to carry out the law. 21 

Tao Ying said: “In that case, what would Shun have done?”

Mencius said: “Shun was a person who regarded the abandonment of the thone as equivalent to throwing away a worn-out shoe. He would have sneaked his father out on his back, running away to the seacoast, happily forgetting about his rulership of the realm.”

(13.36) 孟子自范之齊、望見齊之王之子、喟然嘆曰、居移氣。養移體。大哉居乎。夫非盡人之子與。孟子曰、王子宮室車馬衣服多與人同、而王子若彼者、其居使之然也。況居天下之廣居者乎。魯君之宋、呼於垤澤之門。守者曰、此非吾君也、何其聲之似我君也。此無他、居相似也。

[7A:36] When Mencius was traveling from Fan to Qi, he saw the son of the king of Qi from a distance, and sighed deeply, saying: “The influence of one's place on one's physical appearance is like the influence of nutrition on the body. Is not the influence of status great indeed? Are we all not somebody's son?” He added: “The housing, carriages, horses, and clothes of a prince are the same as those of most other people, yet when he uses them, he looks as he does because of his potions. How much more would this be the case of one were to occupy the vast spaces of the world? When the ruler of Lu went to call on Song and called out at the Diezi Gate, the guard there said ‘This is not our ruler. How is it that his voice is so much like that of our ruler?’ This is based on nothing other than his having been in a similar position.”

[Comment] The rulers of Lu and Song, having been raised in similar environments and positions of status, had similar airs, and thus resembled each other.

(13.37) 孟子曰、「食而弗愛、豕交之也。愛而不敬、獸畜之也。恭敬者、幣之未將者也。恭敬而無實、君子不可虛拘。」

[7A:37] Mencius said, “To feed someone and not love them is the same as dealing with swine. To love someone but not respect them is like raising domesticated animals. Now, courtesy and respect should come before the presentation of gifts. If courtesy and respect are not genuine, you cannot so easily catch the heart of the Noble Man.”

(13.38) 孟子曰、「形色、天性也。惟聖人然後可以踐形。」

[7A:38] Mencius said, “Your physical appearance is endowed by Heaven. Only after you are a sage can you be comfortable in your own skin.”

(13.39) 齊宣王欲短喪。公孫丑曰、爲朞之喪、猶愈於已乎。孟子曰、是猶或紾其兄之臂、子謂之姑徐徐云爾。亦教之孝弟而已矣。王子有其母死者、其傅爲之請數月之喪。公孫丑曰、若此者何如也。曰、是欲終之而不可得也。雖加一日愈於已、謂夫莫之禁而弗爲者也。

[7A:39] King Xuan of Qi wanted to shorten the mourning period. Gong Sun Chou asked: “Isn't it better to have a one-year period of mourning, rather than doing away with it entirely?” Mencius said: “This is just like someone twisting his older brother's arm, and you were to say to him “Gently, gently please.” Indeed, you should teach him nothing less than proper fraternal respect and filial piety.” The mother of a prince died, and his tutor asked on his behalf for a for a mourning period of several months. Gong Sun Chou asked: “What about this kind of case?” Mencius said: “In this case, he wanted to do a full mourning period, but couldn't. So even if he could extend it by a day, it would be better than nothing at all. The point is, this is not the kind of case where the mourning period is not observed even when there are no obstacles. ”

(13.40) 孟子曰、君子之所以教者五。有如時雨化之者、有成德者、有達財者、有答問者、有私淑艾者。此五者、君子之所以教也。

[7A:40] Mencius said, “The Noble Man teaches in five general ways according to five types of students:”

Those who are transformed by the deluge of a seasonal rain.

Those whose virtue he develops.

Those whose abilities he uncovers.

Those whose questions he answers.

Those who develop themselves by their own reflection [under his influence].

The Noble Man teaches in these five ways.

(13.41) 公孫丑曰、「道則高矣美矣、宜若登天然、似不可及也。何不使彼爲可幾及、而日孳孳也。」 孟子曰、「大匠不爲拙工改廢繩墨、羿不爲拙射變其彀率。君子引而不發、躍如也。中道而立、能者從之。」

[7A:41] Gong Sun Chou said: “The Way is so lofty and exquisite, so ascending it is like reaching to the heavens. Can you not make it somewhat more accessible, to that people keep striving every day to reach it?”

Mencius said, “A master carpenter does not give up using the plumb line because of a clumsy helper, and Archer Yi would never change his principles of bowmanship for a clumsy archer. The Noble Man pulls the bow, but does not release the arrow, 22 thus keeping the interaction fresh and lively. He establishes himself in the midst of the Way, and those who are able, follow him.”

(13.42) 孟子曰、「天下有道、以道殉身。天下無道、以身殉道。未聞以道殉乎人者也。」

[7A:42] Mencius said, “When the Way prevails in the realm, people should use the Way to find themselves. When the Way is lost in the realm, people should use themselves to find the Way. I have not heard of case using the Way to seek in other people.”

(13.43) 公都子曰、「勝更之在門也、若在所禮而不答、何也。」 孟子曰、「挾貴而問、挾賢而問、挾長而問、挾有勛勞而問、挾故而問、皆所不答也。勝更有二焉。」

[7A:43] Gong Du Zi said: “When Geng Dang last came to see you, even though his approach was not improper, you would not answer him. May I ask why?”

Mencius said, “One who asks presuming upon his rank, his ability, his seniority; who presumes on what I might owe him, or presumes on our former acquaintance, I will not answer. In Geng Dang's case two of these apply.”

(13.44) 孟子曰、於不可已而已者、無所不已。於所厚者薄、無所不薄也。其進銳者、其退速。

[7A:44] Mencius said, “If you stop once when you shouldn't, you will always stop short. If you take one essential thing lightly, you will take everything lightly. If you advance too sharply, you will subside quickly.”

(13.45) 孟子曰、君子之於物也、愛之而弗仁。於民也、仁之而弗親。親親而仁民、仁民而愛物。

[7A:45] Mencius said, “The Noble Man cares about 23 creatures but does not love them as if they are people. He loves people as people, but not in the intimate way he loves his parents. He loves his parents intimately and is humane to people. He is human to people and cares about creatures.”

(13.46) 孟子曰、知者無不知也、當務之爲急、仁者無不憂也、急親賢之爲務。堯、舜之知而不遍物、急先務也、堯、舜之仁不遍愛人、急親賢也。不能三年之喪、而緦小功之察。放飯流歠、而問無齒決。是之謂不知務。

[7A:46] Mencius said, “There is nothing the wise cannot understand, but they will focus on the important things. There is no one the Humane person cannot love, but he will focus on cultivation of intimacy with the Good. The understanding of Yao and Shun did not include everything, but they took care of what was important. Their humaneness did not extend to every single person, but they were concerned about being intimate with the Good.”

“Those who are meticulous about the details of minor mourning for distant relatives, but who can't carry out the heavy mourning required for their parents, or the people who gorge down their food and swill their soup, yet ask questions about the propriety of tearing meat with the teeth—these are people who don't know what is important.”



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