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Gao Zi (part two) 吿子下-Mencius 孟子(Selections)
来源:净心之旅 更新日期: 2017-1-23 浏览次数: 728 字号选择:  



6B. Gao Zi (part two) 吿子下

(6B:1) 任人有問屋廬子曰、禮與食孰重。曰、禮重。色與禮孰重。禮重。曰、以禮食則飢而死、不以禮食則得食—必以禮乎。親迎則不得妻、不親迎則得妻—必親迎乎。屋廬子不能對明日之鄒、以吿孟子、孟子曰、於答是也何有。不揣其本而齊其末、方寸之木、可使高於岑樓。金重於羽者、豈謂一鉤金與一輿羽之謂哉。取食之重者與禮之輕者而比之、奚翅食重。取色之重者與禮之輕者而比之、奚翅色重。往應之曰、紾兄之臂而奪之食、則得食。不紾則不得食。則將紾之乎。踰東家牆而摟其處子、則得妻不摟則不得妻。則將摟之乎。

(6B:2) 曹交問曰、人皆可以爲堯、舜、有諸。孟子曰、然。交聞文王十尺、湯九尺今交九尺四寸以長、食粟而已。如何則可。曰、奚有於是。亦爲之而已矣。有人於此、力不能勝一匹雛、則爲無力人矣。今日擧百鈞、則爲有力人矣。然則擧烏獲之任、是亦爲烏獲而已矣。夫人豈以不勝爲患哉、弗爲耳。徐行後長者謂之弟、疾行先長者謂之不弟。夫徐行者、豈人所不能哉。所不爲也。堯、舜之道、孝弟而已矣。子服堯之服、誦堯之言、行堯之行。是堯而已矣。子服桀之服、誦桀之言、行桀之行。是桀而已矣。曰、交得見於鄒君、可以假館、願留而受業於門。曰、夫道若大路然、豈難知哉。人病不求耳。子歸而求之有餘師。

[6B:2] . . . Mencius said, “The Way is like a great road. How difficult is it to know about it? The problem with people is that they do not even seek for it. If you just return home and seek it, you will find teachers in excess.”

(6B:3) 公孫丑問曰、高子曰、小辯、小人之詩也。孟子曰、何以言之。曰、怨。 曰、固哉高叟之爲詩也。有人於此、越人關弓而射之、則己談笑而道之無他、疏之也。其兄關弓而射之、則己垂涕泣而道之無他、戚之也。小辯之怨、親親也親親、仁也。固矣夫高叟之爲詩也。曰、凱風何以不怨。曰、凱風、親之過小者也小辯、親之過大者也。親之過大而不怨、是愈疏也;親之過小而怨、是不可磯也。愈疏、不孝也不可磯、亦不孝也。孔子曰、舜其至孝矣、五十而慕。

(6B:4) 宋牼將之楚、孟子遇於石丘。曰、先生將何之。曰、吾聞秦、楚搆兵我將見楚王、說而罷之楚王不悅、我將見秦王、說而罷之。二王我將有所遇焉。曰、軻也請無問其詳、願聞其指。說之將何如。曰、我將言其不利也。曰、先生之志則大矣、先生之號則不可。先生以利說秦、楚之王、秦、楚之王悅於利、以罷三軍之師、是三軍之士樂罷而悅於利也。爲人臣者懷利以事其君、爲人子者懷利以事其父、爲人弟者懷利以事其兄。是君臣父子兄弟、終去仁義懷利以相接。然而不亡者、未之有也。先生以仁義說秦、楚之王、秦、楚之王悅於仁義、而罷三軍之師、是三軍之士樂罷而悅於仁義也。爲人臣者懷仁義以事其君、爲人子者懷仁義以事其父、爲人弟者懷仁義以事其兄是君臣父子兄弟、去利懷仁義以相接;也。然而不王者、未之有也。何必曰利。

(6B:5) 孟子居鄒季任爲任處守、以幣交、受之而不報。處於平陸、儲子爲相以幣交、;受之而不報。他日、由鄒之任、見季子由平陸之齊、不見儲子。屋廬子喜曰、連得間矣。問曰、夫子之任見季子之齊不見儲子、爲其爲相與。曰、非也。書曰、享多儀、儀不及物曰不享、惟不役志于享。爲其不成享也。屋廬子悅。或問之、屋廬子曰、季子不得之鄒、儲子得之平陸。

(6B:6) 淳于髠曰、先名實者、爲人也後名實者、自爲也。夫子在三卿之中、名實未加於上下而去之、仁者固如此乎。孟子曰、居下位、不以賢事不肖者、伯夷也。五就湯、五就桀者、伊尹也。不惡汙君、不辭小官者、柳下惠也。三子者不同道、其趨一也。一者何也。曰、仁也。君子亦仁而已矣、何必同。曰、魯繆公之時、公儀子爲政、子柳子思爲臣魯之削也滋甚、若是乎賢者之無;益於國也。曰、虞不用百里奚而亡、秦穆公用之而霸。不用賢則亡、削何可得與。曰、昔者王豹處於淇、而河西善謳、緜駒處於高唐、而齊右善歌華周;、杞梁之妻善哭其夫、而變國俗、有諸內、必形諸外。爲其事而無其功者、髠未嘗覩之也。是故無賢者也、有則髠必識之。曰、孔子爲魯司寇、不用從而祭、燔肉不至不稅冕而行。不知者以爲爲肉也、其知者以爲爲無禮也。乃孔子則欲以微罪行、不欲爲茍去。君子之所爲、衆人固不識也。

(6B:7) 孟子曰、五霸者、三王之罪人也今之諸侯、五霸之罪人也今之大夫、今之諸侯之罪人也。天子適諸侯曰巡狩、諸侯朝於天子曰述職。春省耕而補不足、秋省歛而助不給。入其疆。土地辟、田野治養老尊賢、俊傑在位則有慶、慶以地。入其疆。土地荒蕪、遺老失賢、掊克在位則有讓。一不朝、則貶其爵再不朝、則;削其地三不朝、則六師移之。是故、天子討而不伐、諸侯伐而不討。五霸者、摟諸侯以伐諸侯者也。故曰、五霸者、三王之罪人也。五霸、桓公爲盛。葵丘之會、諸侯束牲載書而不歃血。初命曰、誅不孝、無易樹子、無以妾爲妻。再命曰、尊賢育才、以彰有德。三命曰、敬老慈幼、無忘賓旅。四命曰、士無世官、官事無攝、取士必得、無專殺大夫。五命曰、無曲防、無遏糴、無有封而不吿。曰、凡我同盟之人、旣盟之後、言歸于好。今之諸侯、皆犯此五禁。故曰、今之諸侯、五霸之罪人也。長君之惡其罪小、逢君之惡其罪大。今之大夫、皆逢君之惡。故曰、今之大夫、今之諸侯之罪人也。

(6B:8) 魯欲使愼子爲將軍。孟子曰、不教民而用之。謂之殃民殃民者不容於堯;、舜之世。一戰勝齊、遂有南陽。——然且不可。愼子勃然不悅曰、此則滑釐所不識也。曰、吾明吿子。天子之地方千里、不千里不足以待諸侯諸侯之地方百里、不百;里不足以守宗廟之曲籍。周公之封於魯、爲方百里也、地非不足而儉於百里太公;之封於齊也、亦爲方百里也、地非不足也而儉於百里。今魯方百里者五子以爲有;王者作、則魯在所損乎。在所益乎。徒取諸彼以與此、然且仁者不爲、況於殺人以求之乎。君子之事君也、務引其君以當道、志於仁而已。

(6B:9) 孟子曰、今之事君者、曰、我能爲君辟土地、充府庫。今之所謂良臣、古之所謂民賊也。君不鄕道、不志於仁、而求富之、是富桀也。我能爲君約與國、戰必克。今之所謂良臣、古之所位民賊也。君不鄕道、不志於仁而求爲之強戰、;是輔桀也。由今之道、無變今之俗、雖與之天下、不能一朝居也。

(6B:10) 白圭曰、君欲二十而取一、何如。孟子曰、子之道、貉道也。萬室之國、一人陶、則可乎。曰、不可、器不足用也。曰、夫貉、五穀不生、惟黍生之無城郭宮室宗廟祭祀之禮、無諸侯幣帛饗飧、;無百官有司、故二十取一而足也。今居中國、去人倫、無君子、如之何其可也。陶以寡、且不可以爲國、況無君子乎。欲輕之於堯、舜之道者、大貉、小貉也欲重;之於堯、舜之道者、大桀、小桀也。

(6B:11) 白圭曰、丹之治水也愈於禹。孟子曰、子過矣。禹之治水、水之道也。是故、禹以四海爲壑。今吾子以鄰國爲壑。 水逆行、謂之洚水。洚水者、洪水也。仁人之所惡也。吾子過矣。

(6B:12) 孟子曰、君子不亮、惡乎執。

[6B:12] Mencius said, “If a Noble Man lacks integrity, to what shall he hold?”

(6B:13) 魯欲使樂正子爲政。孟子曰、吾聞之、喜而不寐。公孫丑曰、樂正子強乎。曰、否。有知慮乎。曰、否。多聞識乎。曰、否。然則奚爲喜而不寐。曰、其爲人也好喜。好善足乎。曰、好善優於天下、而況魯國乎。夫茍好善、則四海之內、皆將輕千里而來吿之以善。夫茍不好善、則人將曰、訑訑、豫旣已知之矣。訑訑之聲音顏色、距人於千里之外士止於千里之外、則讒諂面諛之人至矣、與讒諂面諛之人居、國;欲治可得乎。

[6B:13] The prince of Lu invited Mencius' disciple Yo Chang to run his government. Mencius said, “When I heard about it, I was so happy that I couldn't sleep.”

Gong Sun Chou asked, “Is Yo Chang so strong?”

Mencius said, “No.”

“Is he so wise?”

“No.”

“Is he broadly learned?”

“No.”

“Then what made you so happy that you couldn't sleep?”

Mencius said, “He is a man who loves goodness.”

“Is just loving goodness enough?”

“Loving goodness is enough to excel throughout the whole realm. How much more so in just the state of Lu! If the ruler loves goodness, then the people from within the whole area inside the four seas will not consider far to travel one thousand li in order to share their own goodness with him. But if he dislikes goodness, then people will say ‘He's a scoundrel and we know it.’”

The speech and face of a rogue will keep people a thousand li away. If the good shih stay a thousand li away, then all the back-stabbers and brown-nosers in the realm will come to the ruler. Surrounded by back-stabbers and brown-nosers, can you really run a government?

(6B:14) 陳子曰、古之君子、何如則仕。孟子曰、所就三、所去三。迎之致敬以有禮、言將行其言也、則就之。禮貌未衰、言弗行也、則去之。其次、雖未行其言也、迎之致敬以有禮、則就之。禮貌衰、則去之。其下、朝不食、夕不食、飢餓不能出門戶君聞之曰、吾大者不能行其道、又不能從其言也使飢餓於我土地、吾恥之。周之亦可受也。免死而已矣。

(6B:15) 孟子曰、舜發於畎畝之中、傳說擧於版築之間、膠鬲擧於魚鹽之中、管夷吾擧於士、孫叔敖擧於海、百里奚擧於市。故天將降大任於是人也、必先苦其心志、勞其筋骨、餓其禮膚、空乏其身、行拂亂其所爲、所以動心忍性、曾益其所不能。人恆過、然後能改困於心、衡於慮、而後作微於色、發於聲、而後喻。入則無法家拂士、出則無敵國外患者、國恆亡。然後知生於憂患、而死於安樂也。

[6B:15] Mencius said, “Shun rose up from the grain fields; Fu Yue was found as a construction laborer, Jia Go was pulled up from his fish and salt; Sun Shu Ao from the sea, and Bai Li Xi from the marketplace.”

Thus, when Heaven is going to give a great responsibility to someone, it first makes his mind endure suffering. It makes his sinews and bones experience toil, and his body to suffer hunger. It inflicts him with poverty and knocks down everything he tries to build.

In this way Heaven stimulates his mind, stabilizes his temper and develops his weak points. People will always err, but it is only after making mistakes that they can correct themselves. Only when you have been mentally constricted can you become creative. It will show in your face and be heard in your voice, such that you will affect others. In your own state, if you don't have legal specialists and impartial advisors, and outside your state, you don't have enemy states to harass you, your own state will certainly fall to ruin. From this we can know that life is stimulated from adversity and anxiety, and death results from relaxation and pleasure.

(6B:16) 孟子曰、教亦多術矣豫不屑之教誨也者、是亦教誨之而已矣。

[6B:16] Mencius said: “There are many kinds of teaching techniques. Sometimes I teach by not teaching.”




上一篇:Gao Zi (part one) 吿子上-Mencius 孟子(Selections)
下一篇:Jin Xin (part one) 盡心, 上-Mencius 孟子(Selections)

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