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King Hui of Liang: Part Two 梁惠王下-Mencius 孟子(Selections)
来源:净心之旅 更新日期: 2017-1-23 浏览次数: 584 字号选择:  




1B. King Hui of Liang: Part Two 梁惠王下

[1B:10]

Preliminary note: Qi attacked the state of Yan in the northwest in the autumn of 315 BCE. Yen's prince, a weakling, had resigned his throne to his prime minister, and great confusion ensued, so that the people welcomed the appearance of the troops of Qi and made no resistance to them. Kuang Chang, the friend of Mencius mentioned in 4B:30 and 3B:10 led the Qi armies. The king and Heir Apparent of Yan were both killed.

莊暴見孟子曰、暴見於王、王語暴以好樂、暴未有以對也。曰、好樂何如。孟子曰、王之好樂甚、則齊國其庶幾乎。

他日、見於王曰、王嘗語莊子以好樂、有諸。王變乎色、曰、寡人非能好先王之樂也、直好世俗之樂耳。

曰、王之好樂甚、則齊其庶幾乎。今之樂、由古之樂也。

曰、可得聞與。曰、獨樂樂、與人樂樂、孰樂。曰、不若與人。曰、與少樂樂、與衆樂樂、孰樂。曰、不若與衆。

臣請爲王言樂。

今王鼓樂於此、百姓聞王鐘鼓之聲、管籥之音、擧疾首蹙頞而相吿曰、吾王之好鼓樂、夫何使我至於此極也。父子不相見、兄弟妻子離散。今王田獵於此、百姓聞王車馬之音、見弱旄之美、擧疾首蹙頞而相吿曰、吾王之好田獵、夫何使我至於此極也。父子不相見、兄弟妻子離散。此無他、不與民同樂也。

Qi attacked Yan and conquered it. King Xuan of Qi said to Mencius, “Some say I should occupy Yen and some say I shouldn't. For a major kingdom to overcome another major kingdom of approximately equal strength and do it within fifty days is beyond just the manpower of the conquering army. If I do not occupy Yen, I may experience some bad fate; but what will happen, on the other hand, if I occupy it?”

Mencius replied, “If you occupy it Yen and its people are really happy, then do so. In ancient times King Wu had this experience. If you try to occupy it and its people are against you, then you shouldn't occupy it. In ancient times King Wen had this experience.”

“When a major power attacks another and its armies are greeted by the people with gifts of food, etc., how could there be any other reason except that they are trying to get out of awful circumstances under their own ruler? But if, on the other hand, the people see you as a greater evil than their own dictator, they will never stop their resistance.”

[1B:11] Qi, having attacked Yan, occupied it. The surrounding states began to plan to come to the aid of Yan. King Xuan of Qi said, “The surrounding powers are planning to attack me. How should I deal with them?”

Mencius replied, “I have heard of a king with only seventy square li ruling the whole land—that was Tang. But I have never heard of a King with a thousand square li (like you) having to be in fear. The Book of History says:”

When Tang first began his war of punishment, he started with (the kingdom of) Go. The whole world believed in him, and so as his campaign went east, the tribes of the west became impatient, and as he went south, the tribes of the north became impatient. They all said: ‘Why does he liberate us last?’

The people waited for him the way we wait for rain after a long drought. The merchants continued their buying and selling and the farmers carried on their farming. (When he came to conquer,) Tang punished their rulers, but took care of the common people. He was like the much-needed rainfall and the people were happy. Again, the Book of History says: “We await our King. When he comes, all will be restored.”

Now the prince of Yen was a tyrant, and you went and punished him. Yen's people thought you were saving them from oppression and they greeted your army with gifts of food. But now you murder Yen's family, chain up his younger relatives, destroy the ancestral temples and rob people's treasures. How can you expect them to take this?

The world may fear your power, but if you keep trying to expand your influence and do not practice Humane government, the armies of the rest of the land will rise up to oppose you. You must issue orders at once to release the captives and stop the looting. Confer with the people of Yen. Appoint a ruler for them and then get out of there. Then those who are capable of hurting you will not attack.

齊宣王問曰。文王之囿、方七十里、有諸。孟子對曰。於傳有之。

曰。若是其大乎。曰。民猶以爲小也。曰。寡人之囿、方四十里、民猶以爲大、何也。曰。文王之囿、方七十里、芻蕘者往焉、雉兔者往焉、與民同之民以爲小、不亦宜乎。

臣始至於境、問國之大禁、然後敢入。臣聞郊關之內、有囿方四十里殺其麋鹿;者、如殺人之罪則是方四十里、爲阱於國中民以爲大、不亦宜乎。

3.2. (2.3)

齊宣王問曰。交鄰國、有道乎。孟子對曰。有。惟仁者能以大事小是故。湯事葛、文王事昆夷。惟智者爲能以小事大故大王事獯鬻、句踐事吳;。

以大事小者、樂天者也以小事大者、畏天者也;。樂天者保天下、畏天者保其國。

詩云。畏天之威、於時保之。

王曰。大哉言矣、寡人有疾、寡人好勇。

對曰。王請無好小勇。夫撫劍疾視曰。彼惡敢當我哉。此匹夫之勇、敵一人者也。王請大之。

詩云。王赫斯怒、爰整其旅以遏徂莒、以篤周祜、以對於天下;。此文王之勇也。文王一怒而安天下之民。

書曰。天降下民、作之君、作之師。惟曰。其助上帝、寵之四方有罪無;罪、爲我在、天下曷敢有越厥志。一人橫行於天下、武王恥之此武王之勇;也。而武王亦一怒而安天下之民。

今王亦一怒而安天下之民、民惟恐王之不好勇也。

3.3. (2.4)

齊宣王見孟子於雪宮。王曰。賢者亦有此樂乎。孟子對曰。有。人不得、則非其上矣。

不得而非上者、非也爲民上而不與民同樂者、亦非也;。

樂民之樂者、民亦樂其樂、憂民之憂者、民亦憂其憂。樂以天下、憂以天下然;而不王者、未之有也。

昔者齊景公問於晏子曰。吾欲觀於轉附朝儛、遵海而南、放於琅邪吾何;修而可以比於先王觀也。

晏子對曰。善哉問也。天子適諸侯曰巡狩巡狩者、巡所守也;。諸侯朝於天子曰述職述職者、述所職也、無非事者;。春省耕而補不足、秋省歛而助不給。 夏諺曰。吾王不遊、吾何以休。吾王不豫、吾何以助。一遊一豫、爲諸侯度。

今也不然。師行而糧食飢者弗食、勞者弗息睊睊胥讒、民乃作慝、方命虐民、飮食若流流連荒亡、爲諸侯憂;。

從流下而忘反謂之流從流上而忘反、謂之連從獸無厭、謂之荒樂酒無;厭、謂之亡。

先王無流連之樂、荒亡之行。

惟君所行也。

景公說、大戒於國、出舍於郊、於是始興發補不足。召太師曰。爲我作君臣相說之樂。蓋微招角招是也。其詩曰。畜君何尤。畜君者、好君也。

3.4. (2.5)

齊宣王問曰。人皆謂我毀明堂毀諸。已乎。

孟子對曰。夫明堂者、王者之堂也。王欲行王政、則勿毀之矣。

王曰。王政可得聞與。對曰。昔者文王之治其岐也。耕者九一、仕者世祿、關市譏而不征、澤梁無禁、罪人不孥。老而無妻曰鰥、老而無夫曰寡、老而無子曰獨、幼而無父曰孤。此四者、天下之窮民而無吿者文王發政施仁、必先斯四者;。詩云。哿矣富人、哀此煢獨。

王曰。善哉言乎。曰。王如善之、則何爲不行。王曰。寡人有疾。寡人好貨。對曰。昔者公劉好貨詩云。乃積乃食、乃裹餱糧於橐於囊、思戢;用光弓矢斯張、干戈戚揚。爰方啟行;。故居者有積食、行者有裹糧也然後可;以爰方啟行。王如好貨、與百姓同之、於王何有。

王曰。寡人有疾。寡人好色。對曰。昔者大王好色、愛厥妃詩云。古公亶父、來朝走馬率西水滸、至於岐下爰及姜女、聿來胥宇。當是時也、內無怨女、外無曠夫王如好色、與百姓同之、於王何有。

3.5. (2.6)

孟子謂齊宣王曰。王之臣、有託其妻子於其友、而之楚遊者比其反也、則凍餒;其妻子。則如之何。王曰。棄之。

曰。士師不能治士、則如之何。王曰。已之。

曰。四境之內不治、則如之何。王顧左右而言他。

3.6. (2.7)

孟子見齊宣王曰。所謂故國者、非謂有喬木之謂也、有世臣之謂也、王無親臣矣昔者所進、今日不知其亡也;。

王曰。吾何以識其不才而舍之。

曰。國君進賢、如不得已、將子卑踰尊、疏踰戚、可不愼與。

左右皆曰賢、未可也。諸大夫皆曰賢、未可也國人皆曰賢然後察之見賢焉、然後用之。左右皆曰不可、勿聽諸大夫皆曰不可、勿聽國人皆曰不可、然後察之見不可焉、然後去之;。

左右皆曰可殺、勿聽諸大夫皆曰可殺、勿聽國人皆曰可殺、然後察之見可;殺焉、然後殺之。故曰。國人殺之也。

如此、然後可以爲民父母。

3.7. (2.8)

齊宣王問曰。湯放桀、武王伐紂、有諸。孟子對曰。於傳有之。

曰。臣弒其君可乎。

曰。賊仁者謂之賊、賊義者謂之殘殘賊之人、謂之一夫;。聞誅一夫紂矣。未聞弒君也。

3.8. (2.9)

孟子見齊宣王曰。爲巨室、則必使工師求大木。工師得大木、則王喜、以爲能勝其任也。匠人斵而小之、則王怒、以爲不勝其任矣。夫人幼而學之、壯而欲行之王曰。姑舍女所學而從我。則何如。

今有璞玉於此、雖萬鎰、必使玉人彫琢之。至於治國家、則曰。姑舍女所學而從我。則何以異於教玉人彫琢哉。

3.9. (2.10)

齊人伐燕、勝之。

宣王問曰。或謂寡人勿取、或謂寡人取之。以萬乘之國、伐萬乘之、五旬而擧之、人力不至於此不取必有天殃、取之何如。

孟子對曰。取之而燕民悅、則取之。古之人有行之者、武王是也。取之而燕民不悅、則勿取。古之人有行之者、文王是也。

以萬乘之國、伐萬乘之國、簞食壺漿以迎王師、豈有他哉、避水火也如水益;深、如火益熱、亦運而已矣。

3.10. (2.11)

齊人伐燕、取之。諸侯將謀救燕。宣王曰。諸侯多謀伐寡人者、何以待之。孟子對曰。臣聞七十里爲政於天下者、湯是也。未聞以千里畏人者也。

書曰。湯一征自葛始、天下信之、東面而征西夷怨、南面而征北狄怨、曰。奚爲後我。民望之、若大旱之望雲霓也歸市者不止、耕者不變誅其君而弔其民、若時雨降、民大悅。書曰。徯我后、后來其蘇。

今燕虐其民、王往而征之、民以爲將拯己於水火之中也、簞食壺漿以迎王師。若殺其父兄、係累其子弟、毀其宗廟、遷其重器、如之其可也。天下固畏齊之彊也、今又倍地而不行仁政、是動天下之兵也。

王速出令。反其旄倪、止其重器謀於燕衆、置君而後去之則猶可及止也。

3.11. (2.12)

鄒與魯鬨。穆公問曰。吾有司死者三十三人、而民莫之死也。誅之、則不可勝誅不誅、則疾視其長上之死而不救;。如之何則可也。

孟子對曰。凶年饑歲、君之民、老弱轉乎溝壑、壯者散而之四方者、幾千人矣;而君之食廩實、府庫充、有司莫以吿。是上慢而殘下也。曾子曰。戒之戒之、出乎爾者、反乎爾者也。夫民今而後得反之也、君無尤焉。

君行仁政、斯民親其上、死其長矣。

3.12. (2.13)

滕文公問曰。滕、小國也間於齊楚、事齊乎事楚乎。

孟子對曰。是謀非吾所能及也。無已、則有一焉。鑿斯池也、築斯城也、與民守之、效死而弗去、則是可爲也。

3.13. (2.14)

滕文公問曰。齊人將築薛、吾甚恐如之何則可。

孟子對曰。昔者大王居邠、狄人侵之、去之岐山之下居焉。非擇而取之、不得已也。

茍爲善、後世子孫必有王者矣。君子創業垂統、爲可繼也。若夫成功、則天也。君如彼何哉。彊爲善而已矣。

3.14. (2.15)

滕文公問曰。滕、小國也竭力以事大國、則不得免焉;。如之何則可。孟子對曰。昔者大王居邠、狄人侵之事之以皮幣、不得免焉事之以犬馬、不得免焉事之以珠玉、不得免焉;。乃屬其耆老而吿之曰。狄人之所欲者、吾土地也。吾聞之也。君子不以其所以養人者害人。二三子何患乎無君。我將去之。去邠、踰梁山、邑于岐山之下居焉。邠人曰。仁人也、不可失也。從之者如歸市。

或曰。世守也、非身之所能爲也、效死勿去。

君請擇於斯二者。

3.15. (2.16)

魯平公將出、嬖人臧倉者請曰。他日君出、則必命有司所之今乘輿已駕矣、有;司未知所之、敢請。公曰。將見孟子。曰。何哉君所爲輕身以先於匹夫者。以爲賢乎。禮義由賢者出、而孟子之後喪踰前喪君無見焉;。公曰。諾。

樂正子入見、曰。君奚爲不見孟軻也。曰。或吿寡人曰。孟子之後喪踰前喪、是以不往見也。曰。何哉君所謂踰者。前以士、後以大夫、前以三鼎、而後以五鼎與。曰。否。謂棺槨衣衾之美也。曰。非所謂踰也、貧富不同也。

樂正子見孟子曰。克吿於君、君爲來見也、嬖人有臧倉者沮君、君是以不果來也。曰。行或使之、止或尼之、行止非人所能也。吾之不遇魯侯、天也。臧氏之子、焉能使子不遇哉。




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