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来源:净心之旅 更新日期: 2016-11-7 浏览次数: 359 字号选择:  



主讲:张文毅 Speaker: Chang Wen-yi
记录:陈运璞 Edited by: Chen Yun-pu
 
对于世间法与佛法之关连素有研究的张文毅,于八月十九日科学研讨会的第三天,应邀到万佛圣城演讲。张文毅由物理学、文学、艺术和哲学的角度,阐述佛学中的无常、无我、因果大相续流、时空相对,以及转世等观点,为这次的科学研讨会生色不少。以下就是张文毅演讲的内容摘要,整理于下:
 
因为人皆有佛性,所有宇宙的学问,其实全都在人的身上。泰弋尔在《漂鸟集》里的第一首诗:
 
夏天的漂鸟,
飞到我窗前来唱歌:
唱了一首歌,飞走了。
秋天的黄叶,没有唱歌;
只轻叹一声,飘落在那里。
 
从这首诗里,我们可以看到一种迁流无常的概念:季节的变换、漂鸟的来去、黄叶的叹气——我的时候到了,我掉下去。丘吉尔说:「酒店何时关门,我何时走。」可见他明白人生的意义。不论麻烦或快乐,当人的生命结束时,就要走了。所以从这一点知道,人生是迁流无常的。这一点可以从中国的「道」字来讲,「道」本身就是迁流无常。未讲此字之前,先讲「易」字。「易」是由日、月二字合成。日是阳、月是阴,—阴一阳两者合而为一就是道,它是一种动态的对称,自然的法则运行不已。所以《易经》上说:「天行健,君子以自强不息。」就是效法这阴阳、道的道理,自然的法则就是在走。
 
印度跳舞之神湿婆,他看整个宇宙的程序都是四步舞曲。我们是生、老、病、死;宇宙是成、住、坏、空;一年有春、夏、秋、冬,都一直在这四步舞曲中打转,都在转的现象中。老子《道德经》云:「大曰逝,逝曰远,远曰反。」宇宙的现象就是这样迁流无常。
 
除了无常之外,宇宙现象最重要的是无我。现在的科学家都证明,我们身上的细胞每天都在生灭,细胞里还有比细胞更小的原子,内有核子、电子,到最后变成能波。我们每个人之间的磁场、能场,就像大瀑布一样,能波在不停地交换着,所以我们之间,是不能分开的一个整体,整个宇宙是一面天地蛛网。讲到无我,我们就不会对人生瞋恨心或报复心。人不是独立的个体,而是世界的一部分,事实上,我们自己就是宇宙。
 
宇宙中有一个原则,一念即剎海。剎,代表时间;海,代表空间;所以,一念代表宇宙。从纵的看,是无始无终;从横的看,是无边无际。这么小的一念,却代表无始无终的大相续流。
 
按照基督教「神创生命」的历史来说,创造生命是在一万年前。但是从现在地层及地理的种种结构来看,创造生命不是一万年前,而是更久以前。基督教要找的是第一因,宇宙大爆炸的第一因。他们认为上帝就是第一因,但是佛教讲没有第一因。因为整个字宙是因因果果,互相前后维系,无始无终的。所以整个字宙即是因果大相续流。
 
现在的科学承认确实有转世之事,转世是前生所有之意识,现在全部带到这一生来,转世就是自己跟自己的对话。你前世做得好,这一生得到好报。这一世修行,下一世得到正果,这是宇宙自然的物理法则,自然的力量,绝对跑不掉的。但是,这也不是一定的一对一。佛家所讲的因缘果报,恶有恶报,善有善报,不是不报,而是时候未到。这在物理现象来讲,叫「测不准原理」,一个未知数。所谓时候未到,就是有一种「测不准」,不晓得什么时候会来。佛教这一点,比宿命论强的,就在这里。印度教是宿命论,我一出生,就决定以后怎么样了。佛教是讲「未知数」,所以给人很大的动机,要做好事,要积阴德,无形中把坏的业除掉了。
 
在原子的小宇宙里,有两百三十五价与两百三十八价电子的铀原子,算是比较复杂而能代表电子与核子相互作用的一种。这些电子一方面被核子吸引,一方面又不愿被局限在核子旁的小空间,而各自以平面、斜度及立体的交错往外飞离,又回转到核子旁。这两百多个电子,在这两个交互作用的力量影响下,来回画成不同的弧度,而形成一朵莲花的形状。所以佛说「莲花藏世界」的含意,就是这么小的原子粒子(微尘),也蕴藏着生成异灭,或是大宇宙成住坏空的玄机。
 
另外,也让我们了解莲花所代表的佛性,充塞任何宇宙的角落,甚至在这毛端处的小宇宙中,也有不可说(无限数量)的诸佛如来。所以说,莲花暗藏着宇宙法则的玄机。
 
爱因斯坦的《相对论》说,如果你以光速旅行,你将比你在地球上的孪生兄弟要多活百分之七十。所谓「天上一日,人间千年」,从较宽的角度来看,这是解脱时空的标准,也就是《妙法莲华经》所说的:听《法华》一天,外面已过了几千亿年。
 
我们在这个地球上,我们跟整个宇宙的关系,就像水泡跟大海的关系,我们是一面网。水泡跟大海是不能分开的,我们大家都是有缘,「同舟必有前世因」,我加了一句,「擦肩而过也是缘。。在这宇宙几亿万个星球中,我们很荣幸有整个地球的人在一起,这是说,整个世界人类都是同胞物与。
 
基督教的一些基本思想,和佛教的净土宗简易法门很相似,例如:佛教说,「一心不乱念阿弥陀佛,可得往生极乐世界。」基督教说,「信主可得永生。」佛教讲「怨亲平等」,基督教讲「爱你的邻人,也爱你的敌人。」基督教说,「天国就在你心中。」而佛教说,「佛在灵山莫远求,灵山就在汝心头。人人有个灵山在,只向灵山塔下修」。
 
可是我们晓得整个宇宙里的各部,都是相互依存而不可分开独立的大同体。佛教的大乘宗派不认为只是一心念佛就可以成佛,而是视一切众生都有同体关系,如同大海里的小水泡和整个大海同体不可分,一切众生是我父母,亦视众生如一子(独子)。是故大乘佛法认为既然万物同体,则要到涅槃之境或成佛,不能一个人成。因此,大乘佛教特别注重六度:布施、持戒、忍辱、精进、禅定、般若(智慧),即六种从苦海的此岸渡到快乐彼岸的六种方法。整个地球的众生都是一个大同体,大同体里要做到渡到彼岸,大家一起渡。大乘像一艘船,宣公上人如同一艘大船载大家一起到彼岸去。
 
整个宇宙到处都有佛土,观世音菩萨可以一身化万身,度亿万人,就像我们听收音机,只要频道对了,千万人都可以同时收到无线电波。波是本来有的,不需要人跑去接这波来。物质等于能量,电子等于能波,这就是「色即是空,空即是色」,所以菩萨能够来去自如,祂的能量比光速更快,可以到任何地方,他也是非来非去,如如不动。我们众生的转世轮回,也就是我们自己的回音(echo).


  On the third day of the seminar on science, Mr. Wen-Yi Chang, who studies the relationship between worldly dharma and Buddhadharma, was invited to lecture at the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas. From the various points of view of physics, literature, art, and philosophy, Mr. Chang talked about impermanence, no self, the great continuous stream of cause and effect, contrast of time and space, and reincarnation in Buddhism. The variety of topics in his lecture gave the seminar a greater scope. The key points of his speech are given below:
 
Since all people have the Buddha-nature, all the knowledge in the whole universe is actually within ourselves. A poem written by Tagore says:
 
Stray bird of summer fly to my window
Sing a song and fly away
Autumn leaves which have no song
Flutter and fall there with a sigh
 
In this poem, we can see the concepts of ceaseless change and impermanence: the changing of seasons, the coming and going of a bird, the sighs of the withered leaves. "When my time comes, I fall." Churchill said, " When the tavern closes, I'll go." It is clear that he understands the meaning of life. Be it troublesome or joyful, when a life comes to an end, one must leave. From this point we know that life is constantly changing and impermanent. Let's look at Chinese character "Tao" meaning "the Way" (道). The Tao itself signifies changing and impermanence. Let me talk about another word "yi" (易) first.
 
The word "yi" (易) meaning "change" is made up by the sun and the moon. The sun is Yang (阳), the moon is Yin (阴). When Yin and Yang are unified, it is the Way (道). It is the state of equilibrium of a moving system, the constant operation of cosmic law. So in the Book of Changes it says, "It keeps on going without cease like the revolution of heavenly bodies. One makes earnest efforts to stand on his own feet." Follows the principle of Yin and Yang, and the Way, the law of Nature is in operation.
 
Shiva, the Indian god of dance, visualizes the process of universe as a four-step dance. People undergo the process of birth, old age, sickness, and death; the universe undergoes the process of formation, existence, destruction, and emptiness; a year has spring, summer, autumn, and winter. Everything operates within this four-step dance.
 
In the Tao Te Ching (Classic of the Way), Lao Tze said, "Being great, it flows. It flows far away. Having gone afar, it returns." The phenomena of the universe constantly change and flow like this, with no permanence.
 
Aside from impermanence, the most important phenomenon in the universe is no born and passing away. Smaller than the cell, are atoms each containing a nucleus and electrons. In the end they become waves of energy. Among people, there are magnetic fields and energetic fields, which are like great waterfalls. 


Waves of energy interact without interruption. We are all connected by an inseparable, single substance. Therefore, the whole universe is a great web spanning heaven and earth. With the idea of no self, we won't give rise to thoughts of hatred or revenge towards people. A person is not an independent unit, but rather an integral part of the world. In reality, we ourselves are the universe.
 
There is a principle in the universe: a single thought is a sea of kshanas (instants). Kshana refers to time, and sea refers to space. Thus, one single thought means the universe. Vertically, it has no beginning and no end. Horizontally, it has no bound and no end. Such a minute thought can represent the great continuous stream which has neither beginning nor end.
 
According to the Christian account of history, God created life ten thousand years ago. However, modern geological research into the various strata and structures of the earth indicates that the creation of life happened not ten thousand years ago, but rather much earlier. In Christianity, people want to find the first cause that caused the Big Bang which created the universe. They think God is that first cause. But Buddhism says there is no first cause because the whole universe is just causes and effects, interconnected back and forth, without beginning or end. Thus, the universe is the great continuous stream of causes and effects.
 
Modern science affirms the reality of reincarnation. Reincarnation is the bringing of all consciousness from previous lives into the present life; it is just a dialogue with yourself. It you did well in your previous life, you will have wholesome retribution in this life. The cultivation accumulated in this life will result in proper fruition in the next life. This is the natural physical law of the universe; this natural force cannot be deterred. 


Nevertheless, this is not absolutely one to one: As a Buddhist saying goes, "Good is always rewarded, and vice is always punished. It is not there is no result; rather, it is just that the right time has not come yet." In physics, this is called, the "principle of uncertainty" - an unknown number. "not the right time" refers to this "uncertainty". One doesn't know when it will come. It is in this very point that Buddhism surpasses fatalism. Hinduism is a kind of fatalism, for they think that once a person is born, his future destiny is fixed. However, Buddhism speaks of the uncertainty, which gives people tremendous motivation to do good deeds, accumulate hidden virtue, and thus invisibly eradicate evil karma.
 
In the small universe of the atoms, the case of uranium atoms with 235 electrons and 238 electrons can illustrate the forces of interaction between the electrons and the nucleus. On one hand, the electrons are attracted to the nucleus. On the other hand, they resist being confined to the small space around the nucleus; and fly out in all directions, and then return to the nucleus. Those more than 200 electrons, under the interacting forces, each make different curves, and together they form the shape of a lotus flower. 


That is why the Buddha spoke of the Lotus Treasury World, which represents the idea that even the smallest atom (mote of dust) contains the secret of the formation, existence, destruction and emptiness of the universe. Moreover, it enables us to understand that the Buddha-nature represented by the lotus fills every corner in any universe, and even minutest the universe on the tip of a hair contains limitless, unspeakably many Thus Come Ones. 


So it is said that in a lotus is hidden the secret law of the universe. Einstein's Theory of Relativity says if you travel at the speed of light, you will have 70% longer life than your twin brother on earth. It is said, "One day in heaven is a thousand years on earth." From a broader point of view, this is the liberation from the standard of time and space, and this is described in the Wonderful Dharma Lotus Flower Sutra as, "One listens to the Dharma Flower Sutra for one day, and in the meantime several hundred billion years have passed by outside."

 
Living on Earth, our relationship with the entire universe is like that which the bubbles have to the great sea. We are a great net. Bubbles cannot be separated from the great sea. We all have affinities.
 
"There must be causes from previous lives to bring people together on the same ship." And I have added, "Brushing shoulders as we pass by someone is also a kind of affinity." Among the trillions of planets in the universe, we are fortunate to gather together on this Earth, in the world. All people are my brothers, and all of creation is a part of me.
 
Some basic concepts of Christianity are similar to the simple Dharma-door of the Pure Land School in Buddhism. For instance, Buddhism talks about "chanting Amitabha Buddha single-mindedly, one is able to be reborn in the Land of Ultimate Bliss. "In Christianity it says, "


With faith in God, one obtains eternal life." Buddhism says, "Enemies and relatives are level and equal." Christianity also says, " Love your neighbors and love your foes." "Heaven is in your mind." While Buddhism says, "The Buddha is at Magic Mountain. You need not seek far away. Everybody has a Magic Mountain pagoda. Just cultivate your wisdom at the Magic Mountain pagoda."
 
However, we are aware that all the parts of the entire universe rely on one another and cannot be independent. The Mahayana sect does not think that whole-heartedly chanting the Buddha's name and becoming a Buddha is the end of it; rather, we have to become of the same substance as all living beings. 


It is like the many tiny bubbles which are part of the sea and cannot be separated from it. All living beings are my parents. We regard each of the living beings as our only son. Therefore, the Mahayana sect believes that since all things are of the same substance, a cultivator alone cannot achieve Nirvana or become a Buddha by himself.
 
Thus, the Mahayana sect emphasizes the Six Paramitas: giving, upholding precepts, patience, vigor, Samadhi (concentration), and Prajna (wisdom) - six methods to get from this shore of the sea of suffering to the other shore of bliss. All living beings on whole Earth are one great substance of unity. Everyone will be crossed over to the other shore together. Mahayana is like a big ship. Venerable Abbot Hua is also like a big ship, carrying all of you to the Pure Land.
 
The whole universe is filled with Buddha Lands. Gwan Shr Yin Bodhisattva can manifest ten thousand transformation bodies to liberate trillions of people. It is just like listening to the radio, when the right channel is found, many people can receive the radio wave signal. 


The wave already exists, and we don't need go out to get it. Matter is energy capacity and electrons are energy waves. This is just "form is emptiness and emptiness is form." And that's why a Bodhisattva can come and go freely. This energy capacity is even faster than the speed of light and it can go everywhere. And it neither comes nor goes, and is thus, thus, unmoving. Our reincarnation as living beings is nothing but an echo of ourselves.
 
  



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