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禅定能治心脏病吗?Can Meditation Curb Heart Attacks?
来源:净心之旅 更新日期: 2016-11-3 浏览次数: 338 字号选择:  



智悲翻译中心  译者、校对:圆唐


理查德·帕特森为《纽约时报》撰稿说,最近的研究表明超然禅定可能有益于心脏健康。 


当朱莉娅·邦克斯接近70岁时,她开始练习超然禅定。她有动脉栓塞、高血压等疾病并且身体中部极其超重,因此,她参加了测试禅定益处的临床试验。 


现在,邦克斯夫人,79岁,住在威斯康星州的密尔沃基,每天打坐2次,每次20分钟,空出她称作“一点为自己的时间。” 


“你从来没有觉得你有空余时间,但你把时间给自己,你就会得到你需要的放松。”邦克斯夫人说。六年前冠状动脉搭桥术后,她从严重的心脏病发作和一个冗长的住院期中幸存下来。 


“你有东西在你的心里,但你要把它吸出来并且做冥想,然后你会发现自己是更悠然地生活”她说。“你会发现你想的、你有的问题根本不存在——它们仅仅是你专注的事情。” 


精神放松对生理真的有好处吗?对于邦克斯夫人来说,研究表明,它是有好处的。尽管她还采用药物治疗,但是她的血压已经达到了控制,并且她已经减少了75英磅体重。 


这个研究结果发表在本星期于佛罗里达的奥兰多召开的美国心脏病协会会议上。他们提出对像邦克斯夫人一样有确定的冠状动脉疾病的高风险人群,超然禅定有真正的治疗价值。 


研究人员说,跟踪大约200名病患平均五年时间后,与未进行禅修的类似患者相比,进行禅修的高风险患者的心脏病发作、中风和死亡的危险性降低了接近一半。对未进行禅修的患者进行的健康饮食和生活方式教育更接近于常规方式。 


在大约100名禅修的病人中,20例心脏病发作、中风和死亡;而对照组中有32个。禅修者保持无疾病状态的倾向更长些,也平均降低了他们的收缩压5毫米汞柱。 


“我们发现降低血压是显著的——这可能是一个重要的导致疾病好转的原因”罗伯特·施奈德医生说,他是天然药物和预防研究所的所长,该研究所依托于美国爱荷华州美田医院马哈里斯管理大学,他们发表了这些研究结果。这项研究是威斯康辛州的密尔瓦基医学院与该研究所合作实施的结果。 


一项早期的针对高危的密尔沃基居民的研究中,也发现伴随着常规药物治疗的超然禅定,能帮助降低血压。研究中的这些居民中许多人超重或肥胖,大多数人只有高中学历或更低的学历,大约40%的人吸烟,一半的人收入低于一年1万美元。 


施耐德医生说参与者发现超然静坐易于学习和实践。 


“幸运的是,它不需要任何特殊的教育,并且与生活方式的哲学或信仰不发生冲突;它是一个直截了当的技术,可以使心灵和身体得到越来越深的休息”他说。此外他还相信这个技术可以“帮助重置自己体内的自我修复功能及恢复平衡机制。” 


施耐德医生说禅修的其他好处是可以减少紧张压力,因为这会导致大脑的改变,以减少类皮质醇的紧张荷尔蒙,并且抑制与动脉粥样硬化相关的炎症过程。 


“是什么样的刺激因素导致了心血管疾病?”西奥多·寇晨医生说,他是威斯康辛医学院的临床研究副院长。“激素、神经激素、皮质醇、儿茶酚胺——都倾向于增加紧张压力。它们能在某种程度上导致心血管疾病吗?禅定时这些激素的降低可以导致疾病的减少吗?我们只能推测。” 


另外一项关于超然禅定的近期研究成果发表在《美国高血压杂志》上,该研究关注的是健康的年轻人。报告发现,通过超然禅定可以改善大学生的心理压力和他们的情绪,而对那些有高血压风险的人可以降低其血压。施耐德医生也参与该项研究,该研究在华盛顿的美国大学进行,包括298名学生,他们被随机分配到禅定组或在后续名单中。 


有高血压危险并禅修的学生们收缩压降低了6.3毫米汞柱,而舒张压平均降低了4毫米汞柱。


Can Meditation Curb Heart Attacks?


When Julia Banks was almost 70, she took up transcendental meditation. She had clogged arteries, high blood pressure and too much weight around the middle, and she enrolled in a clinical trial testing the benefits of meditation.


Now Mrs. Banks, 79, of Milwaukee, meditates twice a day, every day, for 20 minutes each time, setting aside what she calls “a little time for myself.”


“You never think you’ve got that time to spare, but you take that time for yourself and you get the relaxation you need,” said Mrs. Banks, who survived a major heart attack and a lengthy hospitalization after coronary artery bypass surgery six years ago. 


“You have things on your mind, but you just blot it out and do the meditation, and you find yourself being more graceful in your own life,” she said. “You find out problems you thought you had don’t exist — they were just things you focused on.”


Could the mental relaxation have real physiological benefits? For Mrs. Banks, the study suggests, it may have. She has gotten her blood pressure under control, though she still takes medication for it, and has lost about 75 pounds. 
Findings from the study were presented this week at an American Heart Association meeting in Orlando, Fla. They suggest that transcendental meditation may have real therapeutic value for high-risk people, like Mrs. Banks, with established coronary artery disease. 


After following about 200 patients for an average of five years, researchers said, the high-risk patients who meditated cut their risk of heart attacks, strokes and deaths from all causes roughly in half compared with a group of similar patients who were given more conventional education about healthy diet and lifestyle. 


Among the roughly 100 patients who meditated, there were 20 heart attacks, strokes and deaths; in the comparison group, there were 32. The meditators tended to remain disease-free longer and also reduced their systolic blood pressure by five millimeters of mercury, on average.


“We found reduced blood pressure that was significant – that was probably one important mediator,” said Dr. Robert Schneider, director of the Institute for Natural Medicine and Prevention, a research institute based at the Maharishi University of Management in Fairfield, Iowa, who presented the findings. The study was conducted at the Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee, in collaboration with the institute.


An earlier study of high-risk Milwaukee residents, many of them overweight or obese, also found transcendental meditation, along with conventional medications, could help reduce blood pressure. Most of those in the study had only high-school educations or less, about 40 percent smoked and roughly half had incomes of less than $10,000 a year.


The participants found transcendental meditation easy to learn and practice, Dr. Schneider said. 


“Fortunately, it does not require any particular education and doesn’t conflict with lifestyle philosophy or beliefs; it’s a straightforward technique for getting deep rest to the mind and body,” he said, adding that he believes the technique “helps to reset the body’s own self-repair and homeostatic mechanism.”


Dr. Schneider said other benefits of meditation might follow from stress reduction, which could cause changes in the brain that cut stress hormones like cortisol and dampen the inflammatory processes associated with atherosclerosis.


“What is it about stress that causes cardiovascular disease?” said Dr. Theodore Kotchen, associate dean for clinical research at the Medical College of Wisconsin. “Hormones, neural hormones, cortisol, catecholamines — all tend to be elevated in stress. Could they in some way be contributing to cardiovascular disease? Could a reduction in these hormones with meditation be contributing to reduction in disease? We can only speculate.” 


Another recent study focusing on transcendental meditation, published in The American Journal of Hypertension, focused on a young healthy population. It found that stressed-out college students improved their mood through T.M., and those at risk for hypertension were able to reduce their blood pressure. Dr. Schneider was also involved in that study, which was carried out at American University in Washington and included 298 students randomly assigned to either a meditation group or a waiting list. 


Students who were at risk of hypertension and practiced meditation reduced systolic blood pressure by 6.3 millimeters of mercury and their diastolic pressure by 4 millimeters of mercury on average.




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