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The Analects of Confucius
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15. 衞靈公--The Analects of Confucius 論語
来源:净心之旅 更新日期: 2016-4-20 浏览次数: 1083 字号选择:  

The Analects of Confucius 論語

Translated by A. Charles Muller

15. 衞靈公

[15-1] 衞靈公問陳於孔子。孔子對曰。俎豆之事、則嘗聞之矣。軍旅之事、未之學也。。

[15:1] Duke Ling of Wei asked Confucius about military tactics.

Confucius said, “I know about the handling of ritual sacrifices, but I have not studied strategy.”

[15-2] 明日遂行 在陳絕糧。從者病、莫能興。子路慍見曰。君子亦有窮乎。子曰。君子固窮。小人斯濫矣。

The next day, he and his disciples continued their travels. By the time they got to Chen, they had run out of provisions, and Zi Lu was obviously angry about it. He said, “Must the noble man suffer such dire straits?”

Confucius said, “The noble man remains stable when in dire straits. The inferior man falls apart.”

[15-3] 子曰。賜也、女以予爲多學而識之者與 對曰。然、非與 曰。非也 予一以貫之。

[15:3] Confucius said, “Si, do you think that I am a person who studies widely and memorizes all of it?”

Si replied, “It seems that way. But perhaps not?”

Confucius said, “The answer is no. I penetrate all with one.”

[15-4] 子曰。由、知德者鮮矣。。

[15:4] The Master said: “You, those who understand virtue are few and far between.”

[15-5] 子曰。無爲而治者、其舜也與 夫何爲哉。恭己正南面而已矣。

[15:5] The Master said: “Cannot Shun be considered as one who governed without overreaching (wu-wei)? What did he do? He permeated himself with courtesy and correctly faced South.”

[15-6] 子張問行。子曰。言忠信、行篤敬、雖蠻貊之邦行矣。言不忠信、行不篤敬、雖州里行乎哉。立、則見其參於前也。在輿、則見期倚於衡也。夫然後行 子張書諸紳。

[15:6] Zi Zhang asked about correct behavior. Confucius said: “If your speech is sincere and honest, and your way of carrying yourself is earnest and reverent, such behavior will work even if you live among the Southern and Northern barbarians. But if your speech is insincere and dishonest and your way of carrying yourself is neither earnest nor reverent, then even if you live in your hometown, you will have problems.” Zhi Zhang wrote these words down on his sash.

[15-7] 子曰。直哉史魚邦有道、如矢。邦有道、如矢。君子哉蘧伯玉 邦有道、則仕。邦無道、則可卷而懷之。

[15:7] The Master said: “The Historiographer Yu was truly of straight character. When the government was just, he was like an arrow. When the government was unjust, he was like an arrow.”

“Qu Boyu is definitely a noble man. When the government is just, he will have a position in it. When the government is unjust he can roll up his principles and keep them in his breast.”

[15-8] 子曰。可與言、而不與之言、失人。不可與言、而與之言、失言。知者不失人、亦不失言。

[15:8] The Master said: “When a person should be spoken with, and you don't speak with them, you lose them. When a person shouldn't be spoken with and you speak to them, you waste your words. The wise do not lose people, nor do they waste their words.”

[15-9] 子曰。志士仁人、無求生以害仁、有殺身以成仁。

[15:9] The Master said: “The earnest officer with a truly humane mind (ren) will not save his life if it requires him to sacrifice of his humaneness. He will even sacrifice himself to consummate his humaneness.”

[15-10] 子貢問爲仁。子曰。工欲善其事、必先利其器。居是邦也、事其大夫之賢者、友其士之仁者。

[15:10] Zi Gong asked about humaneness. Confucius said, “When a craftsman wants to do a nice piece of work, he will always sharpen his tools first. When you live in a certain district, get into the service of the most worthy officers, and seek friends among scholars who are steeped in humaneness.”

[15-11] 顏淵問爲邦。子曰。行夏之時、乘殷之輅。服周之冕。樂則韶舞。放鄭聲、遠侫人。鄭聲淫、侫人殆。

[15:11] Yan Yuan asked about governing the state. Confucius said: “Use the calendar of Xia; ride in the state carriage of Yin; wear the ceremonial cap of Zhou; for music, play that of Shao and Wu. Get rid of the music of Zheng; keep distance from flatterers; the music of Zheng is lewd; flatterers are dangerous.”

[15-12] 子曰。人無遠慮、必有近憂。

[15:12] The Master said: “If a man is not far-sighted, then trouble is impending.”

[15-13] 子曰。已矣乎。吾未見好德如好色者也 。

[15:13] The Master said: “Alas, it is over! I have not yet met someone who loves virtue as much as he loves sex!”

[15-14] 子曰。臧文仲、其竊位者與 知柳下惠之賢、而不與立也。

[15:14] The Master said: “Did not Zang Wenzhong steal the chances of others for a position? He knew the ability of Liu Xiahui, but did not recommend him.”

[15-16] 子曰。不曰。如之何、如之何』 者、吾末如之何也已矣。。

[15:16] The Master said: “If a man doesn't continually question, ‘What is it? What is it?’I don't know what I can do for him.”

[Comment] If a student is not seriously and genuinely concerned about the deeper questions of life, it is very hard to teach her/him anything of value.

[15-17] 子曰。群居終日、言不及義、好行小慧。難矣哉。。

[15:17] The Master said: “When a circle of people can spend the whole day together without their conversation ever touching on justice, and they like to act according to small-minded wisdom, what can be done?”

[15-18] 子曰。君子義以爲質、禮以行之、孫以出之、信以成之。君子哉。。

[15:18] The Master said: “The noble man takes justice as essential. He actualizes it through propriety, demonstrates it in humility, develops it by truthfulness. This is the noble man!”

[15-19] 子曰。君子病無能焉、不病人之不己知也。

[15:19] The Master said: “The noble man suffers from his own lack of ability, not from lack of recognition.”

[15-20] 子曰。君子疾沒世而名不稱焉。

[15:20] The Master said: “The noble man is concerned about the kind of reputation he will have after he passes away.”

[15-21] 子曰。君子求諸己。小人求諸人。

[15:21] The Master said: “The noble man seeks within himself. The inferior man seeks within others.”

[15-22 』 子曰、君子矜而不爭、羣而不黨。

[15:22] The Master said: “The noble man strives but does not wrangle. He has friends, but doesn't belong to a clique.”

[15-23] 子曰。君子不以言擧人。不以人廢言。

[15:23] The Master said: “The noble man does not promote a man because of his words, and does not disregard the words because of the man.”

[15-24] 子貢問曰。有一言而可以終身行之者乎。子曰。其怒乎。己所不欲、勿施於人。

[15:24] Zi Gong asked: “Is there a single concept that we can take as a guide for the actions of our whole life?”

Confucius said, “What about ‘fairness’? What you don't like done to yourself, don't do to others.”

[15-25] 子曰。吾之於人也、誰毀誰譽 如有所譽者、其有所試矣。斯民也、三代之所以直道而行也。

[15:25] The Master said: “Among people, who should I criticize and who should I praise? If I praise someone it is because I have had some way of testing him.”

“The present common people are the same material with which the rulers of the Three Dynasties 44 manifested the correct Way.”

[15-26] 子曰。吾猶及史之闕文也。有馬者、借人乘之。今亡矣夫 。

[15:26] The Master said: “I still look for the scribe who would leave some space in the text, and the man who would lend others his horse to ride. Nowadays such niceties are gone!”

[15-27] 子曰。巧言亂德。小不忍、則亂大謀。

[15:27] The Master said: “Clever words disrupt virtue. Lack of patience in small matters leads to the disruption of great plans.”

[15-28] 子曰。衆惡之、必察焉。衆好之、必察焉。

[15:28] The Master said: “If everybody hates something, you'd better check into it. If everybody loves something, you'd better check into it.”

[15-29] 子曰。人能弘道、非道弘人。

[15:29] The Master said: “It is the person who unfolds the way. It is not the way that unfolds the person. ”

[15-30] 子曰。過而不改、是謂過矣。。

[15:30] The Master said: “To make a mistake and not correct it: this is a real mistake.”

[15-31] 子曰。吾嘗終日不食、終夜不寢、以思。無益、不如學也。

[15:31] The Master said: “I have spent a whole day without eating and a whole night without sleeping in order to think— but I got nothing out of it. Thinking cannot compare with studying.”

[15-32] 子曰。君子謀道不謀食。耕也、餒在其中矣。學也、祿在其中矣。君子憂道不憂貧。

[15:32] The Master said: “The noble man indulges in the Way and does not indulge in his stomach. Doesn't agriculture have the avoidance of starvation as its motivating factor, and study have enrichment as its motivating factor? The noble man is concerned about following the Way, and is not concerned about avoiding poverty.”

[15-33] 子曰。知及之、仁不能守之。雖得之、必失之。知及之、仁能守之、不莊以涖之。則民不敬。知及之、仁能守之、莊以涖之、動之不以禮。未善也。

[15:33] The Master said: “If your wisdom can grasp it, but your ren is incapable of maintaining it, even though you have grasped it, you will certainly lose it. If your wisdom grasps it and your ren is sufficient to maintain it, but you don't manifest it, the people will not revere you. If your wisdom grasps it, your ren is sufficient to maintain it, and you manifest it but don't act according to propriety, you are still not perfect.”

[Comment] This is a decidedly Confucian perspective on the unity of essence and function, similar to that expressed in 12:8. Even with a deep understanding of reality (essence) and a concomitant reflection in the person, external polish is still necessary to be a complete human being.

[15-34] 子曰。君子不可小知、而可大受也。小人不可大受、而可小知也。

[15:34] The Master said: “The noble man cannot act within the framework of lesser wisdom, but he can handle major affairs. The inferior man cannot handle major affairs, but he can act within the framework of lesser wisdom.”

[15-35] 子曰。民之於仁也、甚於水火。水火、吾見蹈而死者矣。未見蹈仁而死者也。

[15:35] The Master said: “The people are more in awe of ren than water or fire. But I have seen people tread on water or fire and die. I have never seen someone walk the path of renand die.”

[15-36] 子曰。當仁、不讓於師。

[15:36] The Master said: “It is better to value ren than to passively follow your teacher.”

[15-37] 子曰。君子貞而不諒。

[15:37] The Master said: “The noble man is precise, but not rigid.”

[15-38] 子曰。事君敬其事而後其食。

[15:38] The Master said: “In serving your ruler, you should be concerned about your service to him first; your compensation for the work should be a secondary matter. ”

[15-39] 子曰。有教無類。

[15:39] The Master said: “In teaching people, there is no discrimination (of class, type, etc.)”

[15-40] 子曰。道不同、不相爲謀。

[15:40] The Master said: “If your paths are different, you cannot make plans together.”

[15-41] 子曰。辭、達而已矣。。

[15:41] The Master said: “Speak enough to make the point, and then leave it at that.”

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