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The Analects of Confucius
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14. 憲問--The Analects of Confucius 論語
来源:净心之旅 更新日期: 2016-4-19 浏览次数: 1086 字号选择:  



The Analects of Confucius 論語

Translated by A. Charles Muller


14. 憲問


[14-1] 憲問恥。子曰。邦有道穀、邦無道穀。恥也。克、伐、怨、欲、不行焉、可以爲仁』 矣。子曰。可以爲難矣、仁則吾不知也。

[14:1] Xian asked about what is shameful. Confucius said, “When the Way prevails in your state, to be concerned about your salary is shameful. When the Way is absent in your state, to be concerned about your salary is shameful.”

Xian asked: “When one is not motivated by arrogance, pride, resentment and desire, can be he considered humane?”

Confucius said, “This can certainly be called ‘difficult,’ but I don't know if it can be called ren.”


[14-2] 子曰。士而懷居、不足以爲士矣。。

[14:2] The Master said: “A shi who is addicted to comfort should not be called a shi.”


[14-3] 子曰。邦有道、危言、危行。邦無道、危行、言孫。

[14:3] The Master said: “When the government is just, you may speak boldly and act boldly; when you have an unjust government, you may act boldly, but be careful of what you say.”


[14-4] 子曰。有德者必有言。有言者不必有德。仁者必有勇。勇者不必有仁。

[14:4] The Master said: “The virtuous will certainly have something to say, but those who have something to say are not necessarily virtuous. The ren man is always brave, but the brave man is not necessarily possessed of ren.”


[14-5] 南宮适問於孔子曰。羿善射奡盪舟倶不得其死.然.禹稷躬稼而有天下夫子不答。南宮适出、子曰。君子哉若人 尚德哉若人 。

[14:5] Nan Gongguo said to Confucius: “Yi was skillful at archery and Ao shook a whole ship 34 but neither died a natural death. You and Ji did their own farming and ended up as emperors.”

Confucius didn't answer.

When Nan Gongguo left, Confucius said, “Here is a noble man, a man of enhanced virtue.”


[14-7] 子曰、君子而不仁者有矣夫、未有小人而仁者也。

[14:7] The Master said: “There are some cases where a noble man may not be a perfectly humane man, but there are no cases where an inferior man is a perfectly humane man.”


[14-8 』 子曰、愛之能勿勞乎、忠焉能勿誨乎。

[14:8] The Master said: “Can you love someone without exerting yourself for them? Can you be sincere to someone without teaching them?”


[14-11 』 子曰、貧而無怨難、富而無驕易。

[14:11] The Master said: “To be poor without resentment is difficult. To be rich without arrogance is easy.”


[14-12 』 子路問成人、子曰、若臧武仲之知、公綽之不欲、卞莊子之勇、冉求之藝、文之以禮樂、亦可以爲成人矣、曰、今之成人者、何必然、見利思義、見危授命、久要不忘平生之言、亦可以爲成人矣。

[14:12] Zi Lu asked what constitutes a “perfected man.”

Confucius said: “If you have the wisdom of Zang Wu Zhong, the desirelessness of Gong Chuo, the courage of Bian Zhuang Zi and the abilities of Zan Qiu, and are also refined through propriety and music, you might indeed be called a ‘perfected man.’ But if you want to perfect yourself right now, why would you need all of that?

 When you see an opportunity for advantage, think of what would be the right thing to do. Encountering danger, leave it up to destiny. When you can stay in difficulty for a long time, and not forget the words that have you have lived by, you can be regarded as a ‘perfected man.’” 35


[14-13] 子問公叔文子於公明賈、曰。信乎。夫子不言不笑不取乎。公明賈對曰。以吿者過也 夫子時然後言、人不厭其言。樂然後笑、人不厭其笑。義然後取、人不厭其取。子曰。其然 豈其然乎。

[14:14] The Master asked Gong Mingjia about Gongshu Wen Zi: “Is it true that your master doesn't speak, doesn't laugh and doesn't accept anything?”

Gong Mingjia replied, “This is an exaggeration. My master speaks when it is appropriate, and people never get tired of his words. He laughs when he is happy, and people never tire of his laughter. He takes when it is right to do so, and people never get tired of his taking.”

Confucius said, “Is this so? Is it really so!?”


[14-15] 子曰。晉文公譎而不正。齊桓公正而不譎。

[14:15] The Master said: Duke Wen of Jin 36 was devious, and not upright. Duke Huan of Qi 37 was upright, and not devious.


[14-16] 子路曰。桓公殺公子糾、召忽死之、管仲不死。曰。未仁乎。 子曰。桓公九合諸侯、不以兵車、管仲之力也。如其仁 如其仁 。

[14:16] Zi Lu said, “When Huan Gong assassinated Gongzi Jiu, 38 Zhao Hu 39 followed him to his death, but Guan Zhong 40 did not. He had not fully developed his Humaneness, had he?” The Master said: “When Huan Gong unified the nobles, it was not through military force, but by the efforts of Guan Zhong. How about this level of Humaneness?”


[14-17] 子貢曰。管仲非仁者與桓公殺公子糾、不能死、又相之。 子曰。管仲相桓公、霸諸侯、一匡天下。民到于今受其賜。微管仲、吾其被髮左衽矣。豈若匹夫匹婦之爲諒也、自經於溝瀆、而莫之知也 。

[14:17] Zi Gong said: “Guan Zhong was not a truly good man; when Huan Gong executed [his own brother] Gong Zi Jiu, he was not only incapable of dying along with his lord — he became Huan's minister.” Confucius said: “When Guan Zhong served Huan Gong as minister, he made him leader of the nobles and straightened out the disorder in the realm. The people are benefiting from this down to the present day. If not for Guan Zhong, we would all be like unkempt barbarians, wearing our hair over our faces and fastening our clothes on the left. 41Shall we exercise the sincerity of simple people, who would hang themselves to death in a ditch, with no one knowing about it? ”


[14-18] 公叔文子之臣大夫僎、與文子同升諸公。子聞之曰。可以爲文』 矣。。

[14:18] The minister Zhuan of Gongshu Wenzi rose to the rank of court officer together with Wenzi. When the Master heard of it he said: “He certainly deserved the appellation of ‘refined.’!”


[14-19] 子言衞靈公之無道也、康子曰。夫如是、奚而不喪 孔子曰。仲叔圉治賓客、祝鮀治宗廟、王孫賈治軍旅。夫如是、奚其喪 。

[14:19] Confucius was speaking about the evils of Duke Ling of Wei.

Kang Zi said, “If he is such a person, how can he stay in power?”

Confucius said, “Zhongshu You takes care of his (Kang Zi's) guests; preacher Tuo handles the temples and Wang Sunjia is his military commander. With ministers like these, how could he fall from power?”


[14-20] 子曰。其言之不怍、則爲之也難 。

[14:20] The Master said: “If your words are not humble, it will be difficult to put them into action.”


[14-21] 陳成子弒簡公。孔子沐浴而朝、吿於哀公曰。陳恆弒其君、請討之。公曰。吿夫三子。 孔子曰。以吾從大夫之後、不敢不吿也 君曰。吿夫三子。』 者 之三子吿、不可。孔子曰。以吾從大夫子後、不敢不吿也 。

[14:21] 陳成子 murdered 簡公. Confucius bathed and went to court, reporting on the incident to Duke Ai, saying: “Chen Heng has murdered his lord; I request that you chastise him. ” The Duke replied: “Report it to the chiefs of the three families. ” Confucius said: “Since I following in the rear of the grandmasters, I have no recourse but to report. My ruler has said, ‘Report it to the chiefs of the three families’ and the three chiefs have said that there is nothing that can be done.” Confucius said: “Since I follow in the rear of the grandmasters, I had no recourse but to report.”


[14-22] 子路問事君。子曰。勿欺也、而犯之。

[14:22] Zi Lu asked how to deal with a ruler. Confucius said, “If you have to oppose him, don't do it by deceit.”


[14-23] 子曰。君子上達。小人下達。

[14:23] The Master said: “The noble man penetrates that which is above. The inferior man penetrates that which is below.”


[14-24] 子曰。古之學者爲己。今之學者爲人。

[14:24] The Master said: “The ancient scholars studied for their own improvement. Modern scholars study to impress others.”


[14-25] 蘧伯玉使人於孔子。孔子與之坐、而問焉。曰。夫子何爲 對曰。夫子欲寡其過而未能也。 使者出。子曰。使乎。使乎。

[14:25] Qu Baoyu sent a messenger to Confucius. Confucius sat down with him and asked him, saying: “What is your master like? ” The messenger replied: “My master wants to decrease his faults, but is not able to do so.” The messenger left, and Confucius said: “What a messenger! What a messenger!”


[14-26] 子曰。不在其位、不謀其政。曾子曰。君子思不出其位。

[14:26] The Master said: “If you don't have an official position, you should not make plans for administration.” Ceng Zi said: “The noble man doesn't worry about those things which are outside of his control.”


[14-27] 子曰。君子恥其言而過其行。

[14:27] The Master said: “The noble man is humble in his speech but superb in his actions.”


[14-28] 子曰。君子道者三、我無能焉。仁者不憂。知者不惑。勇者不懼。子貢曰。夫子自道也 。

[14:28] Confucius's humble estimate of himself, which Tsze-kung denies.
 The Master said, "The way of the superior man is threefold, but I am not equal to it. Virtuous, he is free from anxieties; wise, he is free from perplexities; bold, he is free from fear.

Tsze-kung said, "Master, that is what you yourself say."

[14-29] 子貢方人。子曰。賜也、賢乎哉。夫我則不暇 。

[14:29] Zi Gong was correcting people. Confucius said, “Si (Zi Gong) must be quite talented! I have no spare time to do this.”


[14-30] 子曰。不患人之不己知、患其不能也。

[14:30] The Master said: “I don't worry about being unknown. I worry about my lack of ability.”


[14-31] 子曰。不逆詐』 、不億不信』 。抑亦先覺者、是賢乎。

[14:31] The Master said: “If you don't try to anticipate deception, and you don't plan for your not being believed, yet are the first to be aware of these things, aren't you a worthy?”


[14-32] 微生畝謂孔子曰。丘何爲是栖栖者與。無乃爲侫乎。孔子曰。非敢爲侫也、疾固也。

[14:32] Weisheng Mou said to Confucius: “Why are you so busy running around from place to place? Is it not that you be a flatterer?” Confucius said, “I wouldn't dare practice flattery, it is just that I despise stubbornness.”


[14-33] 子曰。驥不稱其力、稱其德也。

[14:33] The Master said: “A really excellent horse is called such not simply because of its physical strength, but because of its character.” 42


[14-34] 或曰。以德報怨、何如。子曰。何以報德 以直報怨、以德報德。

[14:34] Someone said: “What do you think of the saying: ‘Repay harm with virtue’?”

Confucius replied, “Then how will you repay virtue? Repay harm with Justice 43 and repay virtue with virtue.”


[14-35] 子曰。莫我知也夫 子貢曰。何爲其莫知子也。 子曰。不怨天、不尤人。下學而上達。知我者、其天乎。

[14:35] The Master said: “Aah! No one understands me!”

Zi Gong said, “What do you mean, ‘No one understands you’?”

Confucius said, “I have no resentment against Heaven, no quarrel with men. I study from the bottom and penetrate to the top. Who understands me? Heaven does!”


[14-36] 公伯寮愬子路於季孫、子服景伯以吿、曰。夫子固有惑志於公伯寮、吾力猶能肆諸市朝。子曰。道之將行也與 命也。道之將廢也與 命也。公伯寮其如命何 。

[14:36] Gong Boliao had said bad things about Zi Lu to Lisun. Zifu Jingbo told Confucius about it, saying: “Lisun (Jingbo's teacher) is certainly being deceived by Gong Boliao. But I have enough power to drag his carcass out into the middle of the marketplace.”

Confucius said, “It is up to fate as to when the Way is going to function, and when it isn't. What can Gong Boliao do about fate?”


[14-37] 子曰。賢者辟世、其次辟地、其次辟色、其次辟言。子曰。作者七人矣。。

[14:37] The Master said: “A worthy becomes free of the world, then he becomes free of his land; then he becomes free from lust; then he becomes free from language.”


[14-37] 子曰。賢者辟世、其次辟地、其次辟色、其次辟言。子曰。作者七人矣。。

[14:38] The Master said: “The worthy avoid society; next, they avoid service to a particular state; next, they leave when confronted with a disrespectful attitude; next, they leave to avoid abusive words. There were seven who did this. ”

Comment: This passage is one that reflects some overlap between “Confucian” and “Daoist” values. Normally Confucianism is understood as a tradition where one must remain engaged in society. However, in this case, Confucius' attitude is reminiscent of that of Zhuangzi, who always recommended that intelligent people not accept the norms of a decadent world, and retire in solitude instead.


[14-38] 子路宿於石門。晨門曰。奚自 子路曰。自孔氏。曰。是知其不可而爲之者與 。

[14:38] Zi Lu was staying at outer stone gate (of the capital Qufu), the morning guard said, where are you from? Zi Lu answered: “I came from the place where Confucius is staying.” The guard said, “Aah, the one who tries to do what can't be done.”


[14-39] 子撃磬於衞。有荷蕢而過孔氏之門者、曰。有心哉、撃磬乎。旣而曰。鄙哉、硜硜乎。莫己知也、斯已而已矣。深則厲、淺則揭。』 子曰。果哉。末之難矣。。

[14:39] Confucius was playing the jade chimes when in Wei. A man who passed by Confucius' door carrying a bucket, said “You really are determined — I can hear your playing of the chimes!” After a bit, he said, “How stubborn you are, playing like this! If no one understands, just stop!” “When the water is deep, just plunge in. When it's shallow, raise your skirt.” Confucius said: “That would be decisive — and not difficult!”


[14-40] 子張曰。書云:高宗諒陰三年不言』 何謂也 子曰。何必高宗 古之人皆然。君薨、百官總己以聽於僴宰、三年。

[14:40] Zi Zhang said: The Book of History says: “Gaozong stayed in mourning for three years without speaking.” Why did he do this? Confucius said: “It need not be Gaozong. The ancients were all like this. After the ruler died, all of the officials took orders from the Minister of State for three years.”


[14-41] 子曰。上好禮、則民易使也。

[14:41] The Master said: “If those in power love propriety, the people will be easy to manage.”


[14-42] 子路問君子。子曰。脩己以敬。曰。如斯而已乎。曰。脩己以安人。曰。如斯而已乎。曰。脩己以安百姓。脩己以安百姓、堯舜其猶病諸。

[14:42] Zi Lu asked about the qualities of the noble man. Confucius said, “He cultivates himself by comforting others.”

“Is that all?”

“He cultivates himself by comforting everyone. Now, this is something that even Yao and Shun found difficult.”


[14-43] 原壤夷俟。子曰。幼而不孫弟、長而無述焉、老而不死、是爲賊。以杖叩其脛。

[14:43] Yuanrang was waiting for the Master in a sprawled-out position.

Confucius said, “To be young and not act like a junior; to be mature and have nothing to pass on; to get old and not die: a parasite!” He whacked him on the shins with his staff.


[14-44] 闕黨童子將命。或問之曰。益者與 子曰。吾見其居於位也、見其與先生竝行也。非求益者也、欲速成者也。

[14:44] A boy from the village of Que was working as a messenger. Someone asked Confucius, “Is he developing?” Confucius said, “I can see that he likes to sit in grown-up's places, and likes to be buddies with his elders. But he is not seeking to develop himself. He wants to grow up too quickly.”



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