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In addition to the flourishing of east-west trade, Central Asia was also a region through which Buddhism was transmitted eastward from India in to China.
From the tenth century, Islam became the dominant religion in Central Asia, but until that time, it was Buddhist religion, philosophy and art which flourished there under the influence of India, Iran (former Persia), and China.
[Buddhist Cave Temples] We find many Buddhist cave temples in the region which were carved out of cliffs by Buddhist artists and monks.
These cave temples in the Kucha area include the Kizil Grottoes (04), the Kumtura Grottoes, the Kizilgaha Grottoes, the Sim-Sim Cave, and the Shikchin Thousand Buddha Caves (Floor Plan(19), Wall Paintings(20)）.
In the Turfan region, there are the Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves （01） and Toyuku Caves (Floor Plan(21), Distant View(22)).
Along the Hexi Corridor, we find the Mogao Grottoes (05) in Dunhuang (which are the largest and the most famous), and the Yulin Grottoes in Anxi （Distant View(23), Interior of a Cave(24), which also displays the Present View） many wall paintings and stucco sculptures made between the Early Tang and Western Xia Period.
[Buddhist Temple Remains] On the Northern Route, there are various temple ruins including, Shorchuk (Panoramic View(25), Wall Painting(26), Standing Image of Bodhisattva(27), Seated Buddha(28)), Tumshuq, Chotscho (Kara-Khōja) (01), and Yār-Khoto (Sketch Plan(30), Photo(31)), Murtuk.
On the Southern Route, there are the ruins found at Yōtkan (03), Dandān-Uiliq (03), Rawak (Plan of Ruined Vihāra(33), Relief Sculptures of Buddhas(34)), Head of Buddha(35)), Endere Fort(36), Lou-lan (06), Mīran (07), and Khara-Khoto (08).
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