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2.Horse Breeding and the Role of the Horse in Cultural Exchanges
来源:净心之旅 更新日期: 2016-4-6 浏览次数: 670 字号选择:  



Horse Breeding and the Role of the Horse in Cultural Exchanges

When did humankind first begin to ride on horseback? Although the actual origin remains clouded in mystery, the domestication of the horse is thought to have first occurred on the Eurasian Steppe. This was then followed by the domestication of the sheep and cow.


(1)

All species of horses that exist today are thought to be either domesticated breeds, or domesticated breeds that have reverted back to being wild. N. M. Przhevalskii, a Russian explorer at the end of 19th century, reported the discovery of true wild horses in Kyrgyz. 


This species, the so called “Mongolian wild horse” (1)[b] is thought to be the ancestor of all domesticated horses, and the species is known for various significant characteristics that set it apart from domesticated breeds. 


These characteristics include the number of chromosomes (2n=66, whereas the number for an ordinary horse is 2n=64); a dorsal stripe and zebra stripes on the back; and a short mane that stands erect. Known today as “Przewalski’s Horse”(Equus przewalskii) the breed was named after the Russian explorer who discovered them.


(2) (3)

Approximately when were horses first domesticated? Among early evidence from ruins and relics, we find a harness excavated from Dereivka in the Ukraine, dating from around 4000 B.C., as well as bit-wear marks found on horse teeth excavated from the Botai ruins in northern Kazachstan, dating from around 3,500 – 3,000 B.C.[c] In addition, with the discovery of the wagon in Mesopotamia around 3,500 B.C., horses took over the role of oxen to be used for pulling work. 


In no time, use of the wagon spread, with many horse bones(2) discovered from the Anau Mounds(3) in Turkmenistan, excavated by R. Pumpelly. In addition, horses were discovered buried alongside chariots in the Yin site (殷墟) chariot-and-horse burial pit (車馬坑) discovered at Xiaomintun village (孝民屯) in An’yang, Henan Province, China), which date to around 1500 B.C.



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